Volume 19(3), 2020

Review Articles

Amyloidogenic proteins and occurrence of different amyloidosis in different animal species

Patrycja Florczuk-Kołomyja, Paweł Kołomyja, Wiesław Świderek, Joanna Gruszczyńska

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Abstract. Amyloidosis is a poly-systemic disease caused by extracellular deposition of biologically inactive amyloid proteins, most often in kidneys, liver, nervous system, thyroid, spleen and heart. Depending on the site of production and deposition they can be classified into causing localised (organ-limited) and systemic amyloidosis. Disturbances in functioning of individual organs occur with an increase of the amount of accumulated protein what in turn may lead to the death of the affected individual. The occurrence of amyloidosis has been reported in human, but in animals, the most common form is AA amyloidosis, while AL amyloidosis is the least common. Due to the fact that symptoms of amyloidosis vary and often resemble those occurring in the course of other diseases, it is difficult to diagnose. Treatment of amyloidosis is aimed at improving functioning of the affected organs, yet the disease is incurable.

Original Research Articles

Report on the incidence of hereditary disorders (BLAD, DUMPS) in the Polish population of Holstein-Friesian cattle

Marta Gozdek, Magdalena Kolenda, Dariusz Kamola,, Beata Sitkowska

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Abstract. BLAD (bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency) and DUMPS (deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase) are hereditary lethal autosomal recessive disorders that may affect Holstein cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of BLAD and DUMPS genotypes in the Polish population of dairy cows. In the study 5 732 Polish Holstein-Friesian females were genetically tested for BLAD and DUMPS. Results of the present study indicate that the Polish population of dairy cattle is free from DUMPS as there were not carriers nor sick animals. For BLAD the study confirmed the present of carriers in the population to be at a low value (0.21%). Both BLAD and DUMPS may strongly affect the profitability of a dairy farm, therefore, in order to avoid the economic losses caused by the presence of these genetic disorders in the herd it is important to screen the population and detect carriers as soon as possible.

Body condition of female mink (Neovison vison) affects reproduction performance and behavior in pregnancy and nursing

Lidia Felska-Błaszczyk, Beata Seremak

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Abstract. The study was aimed to evaluate a possible effect of body condition of female farmed mink (Neovison vison) at the moment of conception on their prospective reproduction and behavior. 601 Perl mink females at age 1 and 2 years were assigned to one of five groups according to their body condition. The following parameters were analyzed: gestation and diapause lengths, litter size, live-born litter size, number of weaned per litter, female barrenness, and the incidence of fur-chewing. The effect of body condition was more pronounced in yearling females, where the largest litters, the highest number of live-born per litter, and the highest weaning success were found in the group with the ideal body condition. In both age groups, the shortest pregnancies and diapause periods were observed in the thinnest females. Fur-chewing was most often noticed in either the thinnest or the most obese animals; females of these groups also exhibited the highest rates of barrenness. Consequently, the lowest incidence of fur-chewing, female barrenness were found in females with ideal body condition.

Effect of diet supplemented with black cumin (Nigella sativa) seeds on egg yolk fatty acid profile and egg yolk cholesterol level of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

Danuta Szczerbińska, Marta Sulik, Danuta Majewska, Marek Ligocki, Michalina Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine whether a diet with an addition of black cumin seeds (BCS) can be used in functional egg production. At 8 weeks of age, a flock of 96 female quails was divided into 3 groups. The control group received their standard feed (0 BCS). The diet offered to the test groups was supplemented with BCS in the amount of 20 and 50 g · kg–1, respectively. Dietary BCS supplementation decreased feed intake and improved feed efficiency. Egg yolk of the quail groups treated with BCS in their diet had by a lower percentage of SFA and an increased level of UFA. A significantly increase was observed in the level of PUFA, especially in PUFA n-6. The health-promoting properties of the product were indicated by the fact of a considerable reduction in the yolk cholesterol level. Unfortunately, n-6/n-3 ratio increased in the groups offered the BCS-supplemented diet and under these circumstances eggs obtained from quails receiving BCS in the diet did not meet the requirements of functional food.

Evaluation of utility and biological traits of a Carniolan honeybee line

Dorota Kołodziejczyk, Stanisław Socha

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyze the functional and biological characteristics of the Carniolian breed of the Bielka 1 line. The research material consisted of queens subjected to stationary evaluation in ten consecutive feed seasons (2009–2018). The analysis covered such features as: honey yield, winter hardiness, spring development, swarming behavior and the behavior of bees indicating their mildness or malignancy. A statistically significant or highly significant influence of the year of evaluation was found on all the analyzed functional traits of the Bielka 1 line Carniolian bees. The bees of this line were characterized by a very good honey yield. There were positive and significant correlations between this feature and the others. No significant relationships were observed between the behavior of the Bielka 1 bees and their tendency to swarm and spring development. The bees were characterized by good winter hardiness, creating strong colonies and dynamic spring development. The good qualities of the bee colonies of this line are calm and gentleness. Moreover, they are characterized by low swarming behavior and usually received maximum scores for this feature. The Bielka 1 line can be useful in large apiaries focused on intensive production, but also in home, amateur apiaries.

The Perro de Presa Canario: Growth and development analysis and the assessment of mental predispositions in puppies

Elżbieta Horoszewicz, Justyna Galas

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Abstract. The Perro de Presa Canario is still an unexplored and underrated breed of dogs. The breed had been used in dog fighting and to protect human dwellings for ages. An analysis of biometric traits conducted between the birth and the age of 6 months has shown a harmonious and rapid puppy growth. Zoometric measurements and conformation indices in both dogs and bitches were found to be comparable. At age one week the reported body weight of the bitches was 498 g, and the dogs were heavier by 57 g. At six months of age, the bitches weighed approximately 16.35 kg, whereas the dogs were on average 2.15 kg heavier. Gender has been found to affect weight gains (P ≤ 0.01) and the development of pectoral girdle (P ≤ 0.05). The PAT and the Campbell tests results have clearly shown that the Perro de Presa Canario breed is very dominant. Besides, it appears to be stubborn, intelligent and committed.

Morphometric traits of selected heart veins of standard and mutational colour variants of American mink (Neovison vison)

Piotr Baranowski, Krzysztof Żuk

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to estimate the values of metric traits of selected mink heart veins of standard and mutation colour variants. The study was conducted on 342 hearts of seven-month-old males and 405 hearts of seven-month-old females. Mink colour, resulting from mutation or from crossbreeding mutational colour variants with each other. Metric traits of the coronary sinus, great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, posterior vein, and small cardiac vein were determined by photographic recording of the sub-epicardial picture of these vessels after filling them with a water-dilutable dye for acrylic paints together with a 30% food gelatin solution. In addition, the number of the veins forming the great cardiac vein and that of the posterior veins of the left ventricle were determined. Based on the measurement of the width and length of the mink hearts, the heart shape was determined. Differences were found between the traits of the mink heart vessels of standard and mutational colour variants, but they did not allow to formulate clearly the thesis about the effect of mutations on these traits.

Assessment of disease management and biosecurity measures among poultry farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

John Abakura Hyelda, Michael Amurtiya, Mark Polycarp, Alfred Balthiya

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Abstract. The study assessed disease management and biosecurity measures among poultry farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identified the prevalent poultry diseases and parasites in the study area, assessed disease management and biosecurity measures, and also identified the constraints limiting poultry production among the farmers. Multistage sampling technique was used to collect primary data from 113 poultry farmers using a structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and a four-point Liker-scale. Findings of the study revealed that Salmonellosis, Coccidiosis, and Newcastle Disease were the most common diseases in the area. Similarly, regular change of litter, consistent washing of drinkers/feeders, and also cleaning of the surroundings of the poultry house were the common biosecurity measures among in the area. Foremost among these constraints affecting the farmers were; extreme weather conditions, high cost of feed and other inputs, and inadequate capital and/or credit. Key among the recommendations was the need for the employment of more agricultural extension agents in the area.

Short Communications

The state of breeding and use of Caspian horses in Europe and around the world

Michał Pluta, Katarzyna Bańka, Angelika Cieśla, Łukasz Rogala

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Abstract. The Caspian horse is one of the oldest horse breeds in the world and probably the first oriental domesticated horse. For centuries thought the breed had been considered extinct, until it was "rediscovered" in 1965 in Iran. The breed is quite important in the history of horse breeding, however, it is still little known. The aim of the work was to present the characteristics of the breed (conformation, characteristics and usage) and to assess the current state of the population in Europe and around the World. A survey was conduct among 18 breeders and included 120 horses. The population size was estimated based on the analysis of two breed registries. This study confirms and supplies information about Caspian horses available in the literature. Caspian horses can be very useful in refining small breeds of horses and could bring many profits in Polish breeding of sport ponies.

Case Studies

Seasonal variation in the quality parameters of milk from an extensive, small family farm

Grażyna Czyżak-Runowska, Jacek Wójtowski, Sylwia Bielińska-Nowak, Janusz Wojtczak, Maria Markiewicz-Kęszycka

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Abstract. This research aimed to determine the hygienic quality, physicochemical properties and technological suitability of milk obtained in an extensive, small family farm in western Poland in the spring-summer (grazing) and autumn-winter (indoor) seasons. The farm was operated in the traditional manner where animals spend 7/24 on the pasture in the spring-summer season. The study was performed on forty-eight samples of bulk tank milk collected once a week over one year from 17 cows of the old local Polish black and white lowland breed. Milk was tested for somatic cell count, total bacterial count, basic composition, density, vitamin C content, rennet coagulation time, pH and colour in the CIE L*a*b* system. In the autumn-winter season, a higher somatic cell count, higher protein, fat and lactose levels, longer coagulation time and lower colour parameter a* values were found compared with the spring-summer period. However, no differences as regards the colour parameters L* and b* and vitamin C content were observed between the seasons. Highly significant negative correlations between the colour of the milk and the total bacterial count and somatic cell count were found (P ≤ 0.01). High somatic cells count in studied milk highlights that mastitis and milking hygiene are still a challenging task in small family farms.

Methodological Articles

Preparation of mare's colostrum and milk sample for 2-DE separation without acetone precipitation

Aleksandra Cichy, Alicja Dratwa-Chałupnik, Weronika Medeńska, Małgorzata Ożgo, Ryszard Pikuła

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Abstract. Before electrophoretic separation is performed, the samples must be dissolved in a lysis buffer (necessary to keep proteins dissolved and unbound during proteomic analyses during for a separation of proteins on polyacrylamide gels). The first step in preparing samples for proteomic analyses is their precipitation using e.g. acetone. The aim of precipitation is to obtain proteins from the sample and to remove the compounds interfering with 2-D electrophoresis. Due to difficulties in dissolving some colostrum and mare's milk samples in buffer lysis electrophoretic separation of this biological material was performed without acetone precipitation of proteins. To assess the effectiveness of the applied method, after two-dimensional separation of proteins (2-DE), the obtained gels were stained and archived. The preparation of mare's colostrum and milk samples for proteomic analyses, consisting of defatting, then precipitation of caseins and separation 2-DE, which was not preceded by precipitation of the samples with acetone, resulted in the loss of many protein spots which made it impossible to identify them later using the mass spectrometer.
This Volume

Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica 19(3) 2020