Volume 19(4), 2020

Review Articles

Feed additives in the diet of high-producing dairy cows

Daniel Radzikowski ,, Anna Milczarek, Alina Janocha, Urszula Ostaszewska, Grażyna Niedziałek

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Abstract. Improvement of the genetic value of cows, enabling increasingly high milk yield, requires increasingly modern feeding. Therefore, in addition to high-quality bulky feed and concentrate feed, specialized feed additives are being introduced to the diet of high-producing dairy cows. The available additives (rumen-protected essential ingredients, phytobiotics, probiotic, prebiotic and others) have a broad spectrum of activity, increasing production efficiency, protecting against metabolic disease, and improving the reproductive parameters and health of the herd. It should be borne in mind, however, that only rational use of feed additives in the diet of cows is conducive to their longevity, which is one of the most important factors improving the economic outcomes of milk production.

Original Research Articles

Meat quality of crossbred pigs with various percentage of Pietrain and Duroc breeds (E and U classes in the Europ system)

Tadeusz Karamucki, Małgorzata Jakubowska

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Abstract. This study comprised 160 meat samples (m. longissimus lumborum) from 160 abattoir carcasses of pigs representing 4 groups of crossbreeds: group I – ♀ (Deutsche Landschwein × Deutsche Edelschwein) × ♂ (Pietrain), group II – ♀ (Polish Large White × Polish Landrace) × ♂ (Duroc × Pietrain), group III – ♀ (Polish Landrace) × ♂ (Duroc × Pietrain), group IV – ♀ (Landrace × Yorkshire) × ♂ (Duroc). Each group consisted of 40 carcasses (20 of which were each class E and U). After slaughter, hot carcass weight, backfat thickness, longissimus lumborum muscle thickness, and the percentage of meat in the carcass (Sydel CGM) were determined on the processing line, and after 48 hours in the laboratory – the colour characteristics of the meat (lightness – L*, redness – a*, yellowness – b*, chroma – C*, and hue angle – h°), water holding capacity (WHC), pH48, and the percentage of dry matter, total protein, fat, and ash. The highest a*, b* and C*, the lowest pH48, and the highest level of dry matter were found in meat from group I (50% Pietrain pigs). The lowest L*, lowest WHC, and the highest pH48 were found in meat from group IV (50% Duroc pigs). No significant differences were found between E and U classes in L*, h°, WHC, pH48, nor in the percentage of dry matter, total protein, fat, or ash in meat. In conclusion, meat quality characteristics were mainly significantly influenced by the type of commercial cross-breeding, and the influence of the class of carcass was mostly insignificant.

Identification of mare colostrum proteins

Weronika Medeńska, Alicja Dratwa-Chałupnik, Małgorzata Ożgo , Aleksandra Cichy, Ryszard Pikuła, Janusz Bobik

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Abstract. Colostrum is an essential feed of foals. It is a source of nutrients and functional proteins significant for foals’ growth and development. In the presented research using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled via spectrometry mass MALDI-TOF in the mares’ colostrum (whey proteins fraction) were identified 24 proteins representing 15 different gene products. The identified proteins were involved in supporting foals’ immature immune systems and in the transport of various compounds. Further research of mares’ colostrum will allow determining more gene products. An in-depth analysis of mares’ milk will provide information about biochemical processes occurring in the mammary gland of the mare during the lactation period.

Coat colour inheritance in American mink (Neovison vison): Pedigree analysis

Patrycja Wacławik, Dominika Grabolus, Magdalena Zatoń-Dobrowolska, Wojciech Kruszyński

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Abstract. This work aims to establish a simplified genotype for American mink (Neovison vison), on the basis of a group of basic genes (Asip, Tyrp–1, Tyr, Myo–5a, and Mc–1r) and three modifying genes (fawn, Ednrb, and Kit). The analysis used pedigrees of 61 females of standard brown, palomino, and silverblue colour variations. The database covered 380 offspring in nine colour variations: brown, silverblue, palomino, brown cross, palomino cross, pearl, pastel, silverpastel, and white. The analysis led to a simplified genotype explaining the principles of inheritance of most common coat colour variations in Polish mink farms. Due to the limited number of animals and the limited number of colour variations used, the analysis could not test the inheritance of all colours found in mink. The genotype was constructed on the basis of the homologous genes responsible for coat colour found in most animal species.

The effect of increased selenium and vitamin E in the feeding of fattening pigs on their growth, chemical composition of meat and serum biochemical parameters

Anita Kołodziej-Skalska, Arkadiusz Pietruszka, Beata Matysiak

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of supplementing standard compound feeds for fatteners with additional amounts of selenium and vitamin E on fattening performance, meat chemical composition, serum biochemical parameters in fattening pigs. The study was carried out on 60 fatteners of the 990 Polish Synthetic Line. The animals were allocated to 4 groups: control group - receiving basal diets (grower and finisher), contain 0.3 mg inorganic Se (Na2SeO3) and 60 mg vitamin E · kg–1. Experimental groups received additionally: SE - 0.2 mg organic Se · kg–1; VE group - 60 mg vitamin E · kg–1; and VE+SE group - 60 mg vitamin E · kg–1 and 0.2 mg organic Se · kg–1. The addition of selenium contributed to the deterioration of feed conversion. Pigs receiving the additives used had a significantly lower meat content in carcass. Both selenium and vitamin E contributed to the reduction of cholesterol content in meat. Fatteners receiving the addition of vitamin E alone and in combination with selenium were characterized by significantly lower cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in serum.

Analysis of mineral compounds in dry dog foods and their compliance with nutritional guidelines

Jagoda Kępińska-Pacelik, Wioletta Biel

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Abstract. The aim of this study was to estimate complete extruded dry food for adult dogs, with a particular focus on: mineral profiles and ratios and the division into breed size. Dog foods were subjected to chemical analyzes to determine the content of macroelements and microelements. Additionally, the presence of heavy metals was verified and mineral ratios were estimated. The material for the research consisted of 15 randomly selected industrial household maintenance foods for adult dogs (five for large breed dogs, five for small breed dogs and five for all breeds dogs). All analyzed feeds met the FEDIAF recommended minimum recommended levels of microelements and macroelements, although the potassium level in 33% of the feeds analyzed was below the recommended minimum. 20% of the feeds tested exceeded the permissible quantitative ratio of calcium to phosphorus. In none of the tested feeds no heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Pb) were found. When choosing a feed, always pay attention to the label and carefully analyze the component of the product.

Gastrointestinal helminths and coccidia infestation of city pigeons (Columba livia forma urbana) on selected monuments in Szczecin

Aleksandra Balicka-Ramisz, Łukasz Laurans, Anna Ramisz, Elena Stolbowa, Wojciech Bal

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Abstract. City pigeons (Columba livia forma urbana) are an integral part of the urbanized environment. However, they host parasites that can be passed zoonotically to humans and to domestic and wild birds. The aim of the study was to establish the current prevalence of nematode and coccidians infestation among city pigeons roosting in old buildings in Szczecin. The pigeon kits, comprising city pigeons and stray breeding pigeons which had not returned to their lofts, numbered from 45 to 60 individuals. Samples of pigeon droppings were tested qualitatively by the flotation method and then quantitatively by the McMaster technique. Oocyst culture was also performed in a humid chamber at a temperature of 24–26° C. The oocytes were identified using standard keys. Two roundworm families were identified, Ascaridia spp. (two species) and Capillaria spp., and three coccidian species: Eimeria labbeana, E.columbarum and E. columbae. Overall, the extent of infection was approximately 100% throughout the study area, but varied depending on the place of origin of the material. The prevalence of worms with eggs ranged from 9% to 16% for Ascaris spp. and 24–41% for Capillaria spp. The maximum OPG values, i.e. the number of oocytes per gram of faeces, were 360 for Ascaris spp. and 1134 for Capillaria spp; these indicate the intensity of infection. The most frequently observed species was Eimeria labbeana, whose prevalence was found to range from 82% to 96% depending on location, with a mean infection intensity of 1130–1870 OPG. The prevalence of the other two Eimeria species was also high, with respectively values of 56–77% for E. columbarum and 32–43% for E. columbae, depending on the location. The mean OPG values for the species were 430–1770 and 29–52, respectively. Maximum OPG values were 223,000 for E. labbeana, 54,000 for E. columbarum and 830 for E. columbae.

The effect of flax seeds addition in nutrition of quails on the quality of carcass and meat

Małgorzata Jakubowska, Tadeusz Karamucki

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Abstract. The study was performed on 6-week-old Pharaoh quails. The birds were divided into 2 feeding groups: the control, fed with the standard starter and finisher fodder, and the experimental one, fed with the fodder mixtures containing 4% fragmented flax seeds. After the experiment was completed, the birds were slaughtered and a simplified slaughter analysis was performed. From each carcass the pectoral and leg muscles, liver, stomach, heart, and fat were obtained. The pectoral muscles were used to determine the basic chemical composition and for the sensory assessment of the colour, aroma, tenderness and juiciness of the cooked meat was performed. The study allowed to find that the quails from the experimental group were characterized by a significantly lower carcass fatness, and in the remaining parameters of slaughter analysis, no differences between the control and experimental group were found. The use of flax seeds in quails nutrition had no effect on the chemical composition of pectoral muscles, only a tendency to increase the protein, dry weight and ash content, and a decrease in the intramuscular fat content were observed. The sensory evaluation showed that in the meat of birds receiving flax seeds deviations in colour, juiciness and palatability may occur.

Analysis of selected parameters influencing the technological and sensory quality of pork

Stanisław Socha, Ewa Kozakiewicz, Dorota Kołodziejczyk

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyze selected parameters influencing the technological and sensory quality of pork. The material for the study was pork from the ham muscle and the ribeye muscles. The raw material came from a meat processing plant located in north-eastern Poland. The research was carried out on 80 porkers from various farms and farms. The tests included pH in 45 minutes and 24 hours from slaughter, meat color, water holding capacity, and the chemical composition of meat. It was found that half of the porkers had a lean content of more than 50%, and the best distinction between meat of normal quality and other quality classes results from the use of two or three different evaluation methods. The measurements of color and pH are most useful in assessing the quality of meat, but for the classification to be precise, some of them must be carried out immediately on the slaughter and as soon as the carcasses have cooled down. The brightness of the meat and the final pH values enable distinguishing between DFD meat and PSE meat. The color of normal meat is very similar to that of meat with the RSE defect. Significant (P ≤ 0.01) relationships were found between the protein content and the pH of the meat measured 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughter. Significant relationships (P ≤ 0.01) also occurred between the values of the parameter a* and b* (trichromaticity coordinates).

Evaluation of broiler chickens rearing parameters in relation to intensity of infection with Eimeria protozoa

Ewa Januś, Piotr Sablik

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Abstract. The study was aimed to assess the rearing parameters in Ross 308 broiler chickens depending on the intensity of infection with Eimeria protozoa. Two flocks were included in the analysis. One was found to be free from coccidiosis (healthy flock HF) and the other was classified as infected flock (IF). The collected data included the age of the chickens, losses (including falls and culls), body weight, weight gains, and daily feed intake. Additionally, the mean feed intake per kg body weight was estimated and the European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF) was calculated. The study demonstrated that the presence of Eimeria parasites in the rearing environment of broiler chickens had an impact on the rearing performance by increasing the demand for feed and the percentage of falls and culls during the rearing period, in comparison with chickens from the coccidiosis-free flock. Although they consumed higher amounts of feed, the coccidia-infected chickens were characterized by substantially lower weight gain values. The EPEF value on rearing day 42 in the Eimeria-infected broiler flock was by 103.66 lower than that calculated in the healthy flock.

Case Studies

Assessment of selected indicators of the individual condition of roe deer Capreolus capreolus in the closed hunting season

Piotr Czyżowski, Anna Okrasa, Mirosław Karpiński

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the condition of roe deer in the closed hunting season based on the analysis of body weight and fat reserves in roe deer killed in road collisions. The research material consisted of kidneys dissected from 12 bucks, 4 does, and 5 fawns killed in road accidents between February 12 and May 10, 2020. The measurements were used for calculation of the kidney fat index (KFI) based on the formula [Bobek et al. 1984]: KFI = kidney weight with fat/kidney weight without fat. The study presents the distribution of the analyzed parameters with reference to the animal sex and month in which the animal died in the road collision. A distinct decline in the value of fat reserves expressed as the KFI index and the perirenal fat weight mass was observed in the study. In the first two months (February, March), this decrease coincided with reduced body weight, which rapidly increased in April. This may have been related to the intensive vegetation growth. Nevertheless, the costs of the breeding season (primarily in males) resulted in further weight loss in May. The analysis of carcass weight and fat reserves in roe deer killed in road collisions can complete the information about their individual condition and indirectly shows the condition of the roe deer population in the closed hunting season, i.e. in the critical period for this species (winter and the beginning of the breeding season).
This Volume

Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica 19(4) 2020