Volume 22(3), 2023

Review Articles

The impact of breeding and farming conditions on the welfare of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Renata Pilarczyk, Piotr Sablik

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Abstract. The welfare of alpacas in farming varies and is influenced by various factors, including environmental conditions, nutrition, interactions with humans, and grooming and breeding practices. It is crucial to provide adequate space for the animals both indoors and in outdoor areas due to their herd-oriented nature. Interactions with humans play a significant role in alpaca farming. Proper handling and gentle treatment positively affect their behavior. However, excessive contact at a young age may lead to undesirable behaviors such as Berserker syndrome. Processes such as birthing, weaning, shearing, as well as other breeding practices, impact the welfare of alpacas. Understanding the animal natural needs and minimizing stress are essential to providing optimal living conditions for them.

Characteristic of the population of geese covered by the protection of biodiversity programme in Poland

Jolanta Calik, Lidia Lewko, Artur Kowalczyk, Ewa Łukaszewicz, Krzysztof Andres

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Abstract. Domestic goose is a species strongly associated with the agricultural landscape, tradition and culture of local communities. Currently, a unique collection of 14 breeds of geese kept on four farms across the country is included in the programme for the protection of the goose population in Poland. Endangered geese are protected using an in situ method - keeping live animals in their natural environment. All goose breeds included in the protection programme represent a valuable part of the genetic diversity of the species. Based on the analysis of the results for the 2021 or 2022 period, it was found that these geese maintain good health, achieve good production and hatchability parameters, and their mating method protects them from an inbred increase.

Original Research Articles

The effect of partial replacement of protein concentrate in the diet with legume seeds on the fattening and slaughter value of pigs

Aleksandra Cebulska, Hanna Jankowiak, Eva Weisbauerová

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Abstract. Pig production profitability is dependent on a number of factors that determine the extent of expenses incurred, taking into account the prices of slaughter animals, the production system and the prices of cereals included in compound feed. However, the most crucial factor is the cost of pig feeding. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of partial replacement of protein concentrate with legume seeds in complete feeds on pig growth rate and fattening efficiency under rearing conditions of a conventional farm. The polish breed crossbred fatteners were divided into two groups with different composition of the fed feed mixture. The analysis covered fattening characteristics and slaughter characteristics. In addition, the value of sales and cost of pig feeding were analysing. In this study, the fatteners fed a feed mixture with legume seeds had higher warm carcass weights, thinner backfat, and higher carcass meat content compared to pigs from control group, which ultimately translated into higher profit on fattener production. A minimum proportion of legume seeds in a feed mixture for pigs has been shown to have a significant impact on growth rate and slaughter value.

The characteristics of coat color of Sandomierska goats

Monika Greguła-Kania, Daria M. Urbańska

 Article in Press

Abstract. The Sandomierska goat is one of three native breeds of goats living in Poland. A characteristic feature of Sandomierska goats is their colorful coat. Currently, four types of coat color are distinguished: gray-piebald, black-piebald, brown-piebald and three-colored. The color of the skin and fur is one of the forms of adaptation to relevant climate, because the thermoregulatory reaction varies depending on the color of the coat. Therefore, the aim of the study is to analyze the frequency of types of coat color in Sandomierska goats, and the general characterization of goat hair. Both sexes of the Sandomierska goat are dominated by black-piebald color. The least common color is brown-piebald. In turn, the three-colored coat was identified only in females registered in breed registry. The hair analyzed showed the presence of an intermittent, fragmented and a spongy medulla. Hair scale pattern are regular and unregular wave with rippled scales margin in Sandomierska goats.

The influence of different diet formulations on the reproductive quality of dry cows and the growth of their offspring from the new population of Simmental beef cattle in the Carpathian region of Bukovina

Andriy K. Kalinka, Olha I. Stadnytska, Daniel Zaborski

 Article in Press

Abstract. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of feeding dry Simmental beef cows from the Bukovina zone of the Carpathian region with different diets and to analyze their effect on the growth of the offspring up to the age of 7 months. Significant changes in the live weight of bull calves were found at different ages (from birth to 7 months), indicating certain differences in the growth characteristics of the offspring whose dams received 15–20% more energy during the dry period. The economic efficiency of fattening young bulls from the new population of Simmental beef cattle fed haylage diets (providing 15–20% more energy for their dams during the dry period) is also presented. This feeding method has proven to be the most economically viable in the Carpathian foothill zone.

Comparison of D55/10° and TL84/10° illuminant/observer systems in measurements of colour in raw porcine longissimus muscle

Tadeusz Karamucki

 Article in Press

Abstract. This study involved 240 samples of longissimus lumborum muscle taken from 240 carcasses (with an average weight of 90.3 ± 7.6 kg) of pigs slaughtered on an industrial production line. The moisture content, crude protein, intramuscular fat content, water holding capacity (WHC), and pH48 were determined. Colour measurements were taken using the CIELAB and CIELCh colour scales, using the D65/10° and TL84/10° illuminant/observer systems. Reflectance measurements were taken in the 400–700 nm range (at intervals of 10 nm). The chromatic absorbance at a wavelength of 525 nm (A525p) and the relative quantities of MbO2, MetMb, and Mb were calculated, before and after illuminated, and differences (Δ) were calculated. Hue difference (ΔH) and total colour difference (ΔE) were also calculated. The use of the TL84/10° illuminant/observer system for measuring the colour of raw pork longissimus muscle, as compared to the D65/10° system, changed the observed effect of the amount of pigments and relative quantities of myoglobin chemical forms on colour parameters, mainly a* and h°, as well as C* and in the effect result in higher correlation coefficients between WHC and pH48 and changes in redness (Δa*) and hue angle (Δh°) as well as chroma (ΔC*) of colour. The TL84/10° system, as compared to the D65/10° system, may be more useful for measuring changes in the colour of raw pork, especially for determining Δa and Δh° as well as ΔH and ΔE.

Determinants of udder quarter milk yield in automatically milked cows

Iwona Kuropatwińska, Mariusz Bogucki

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Abstract. The objective of this paper was to analyse udder quarter milk yield in automatically milked cows, taking into account the lactation number, lactation period and season, as well as to determine the share of individual quarters (front and rear quarters, left and right quarters) in total milk yield during a single milking. The analysis was conducted using data obtained from one cattle farm with 280 Polish Holstein-Friesian (PHF) cows, milked with 4 VMS milking robots. The analysed parameters included: milk yield during milking of front quarters (left and right), rear quarters (left and right), the ratio of front quarter to rear quarter and left to right quarter yields. In the oldest cows, an increase was observed in udder quarter milk yield in lactations 1–3, followed by a decrease in lactation 4 and then another increase. Cows in lactations ≥5 have better milk yield than cows in the 3rd lactation. An average milk yield of one quarter of the udder for all lactations was 3.81 kg. With higher lactation numbers, there was a decrease in milk yield for all udder quarters. The reduction in udder quarter milk yield of lactating cows ranged from 1.52 kg (rear right quarter) to 1.78 kg of milk (rear left quarter) and from 1.59 kg (front right quarter) to 1.70 kg of milk (front left quarter). No significant differences were observed in the milk yield of individual udder quarters in the spring, summer and autumn seasons. On the other hand, there was a marked increase in this parameter in the winter months. With successive lactations, the share of front quarters in total milk yield decreased - from 46.9% in primiparous cows to 41.2% in cows after ≥5 lactations. The share of rear quarters in milk yield in turn increased. With every successive lactation, the disproportion in the milk yield between the front quarters and rear quarters widened. When it comes to the left and right quarters of the udder, in terms of the factors considered, similar results were observed.
This Volume

Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica 22(3) 2023