Abstract. For a large number of consumers today, primarily young ones, acceptance of a foodstuff such as meat is often linked to demands for appropriate conditions for the maintenance of productive animals, as well as proper protective treatment during transport and slaughter. The way in which commercial and slaughter animals are handled is being viewed more and more critically by the public. The increasing sensitivity of consumers to the fate of animals in recent years is also reflected in the emergence of new legislation. The quality of pork meat largely depends on how the animals are handled, and in particular on factors related to pre-slaughter marketing and the conditions of slaughter itself. During pre-slaughter marketing, the body of fattening animals and the quality of pork are particularly adversely affected by conditions during loading, transport, holding in the livestock warehouse, and slaughter. Carried out even under the best conditions, they induce a severe stress for pigs, resulting in significant reduction in the quantity and quality of meat.
Abstract. Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland which occurs as a defensive reaction to microorganisms that have penetrated the body. The disease generates huge financial and economic losses as treatment of affected cows is expensive but not always effective, which translates into a decrease in the amount of milk that they produce. Due to the huge number of pathogens and their molecular diversity, the immune system has developed various mechanisms to combat them. What raises hopes for improved udder health is marker assisted selection (MAS) or genomic selection. The molecular diversity of microbes allows them to be considered genetic markers, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are suitable candidates. TLRs recognize infectious agents and trigger mechanisms to combat them, including by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and interferons. Due to the role these receptors play in the body, TLR-encoding genes may be associated with bovine mastitis resistance.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of age on the fattening performance qualities and carcasses slaughter value. The assessment covered 99 crossbred pigs (Danish Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc). The animals were subdivided into two groups with different slaughter age (159 and 169 days). The assessment covered fattening and post-slaughter characteristics. It has been proven that, at slaughter, younger crossbred pigs showed a higher growth rate than older pigs (P<0.01). In addition, the former were fattened for a shorter period and consumed less feed across the entire fattening period as well as per 1 kg of gain. Carcasses of pigs older at slaughter were characterised by greater warm carcass weight and height of the loin muscle relative to group I carcasses (P<0.01). Slaughter value of fatteners from both groups studied was very high, as each of the carcasses under assessment was classified under the most valuable categories S, E, and U.
Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the type of milk replacer on the production results of calf rearing and hematological and biochemical parameters of their blood. Calves (heifers) of the Polish Holstein-Friesian breed, divided into two groups of 18 animals each, were maintained and fed equally, except for milk replacers used from the 31st to the 90th day of calf life. Group A received milk replacer based on skimmed milk powder, and group B received milk replacer based on whey powder. Production parameters were calculated and hematological and biochemical blood indices were determined. Better calf rearing results were found when the formula A was used. Calves, despite a lower initial weight at 30 days of age, reached a higher final weight at 90 days of rearing. There was a significantly higher number of leukocytes and erythrocytes in the blood of gorup A clves, whereas in group B there was a higher average red blood cell volume and average weight of hemoglobin in a red blood cell. In addition, there were significant differences in the levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol in the blood of calves fed different milk replacers (P ≤ 0.05).
Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of additives used in food in a random group of Polish consumers. It was based on the results of a consumer survey addressed to the inhabitants of Poland via the Internet. The questions in the survey concerned the knowledge and behaviour of respondents regarding food additives. The analysis showed that the respondents pay attention to additives used in food to a large extent, but their general knowledge on this subject is at an average level. Pro-health attitudes regarding the purchase of food without additives were most often shown by females and younger people and those with higher education and living in urban agglomerations. Since the survey did not confirm the respondents’ opinion about their extensive knowledge of additives used in food production, it should be assumed that this largely reflects the state of awareness in this area in a large part of society. Actions should be taken to educate the public about the use of additives in the food industry to raise awareness about the safety and scale of consumption of food additives.
Abstract. The intensive breeding work has led to the globalisation of poultry production in terms of available commercial hybrids of laying hens. However, the indigenous breeds are still maintained in many countries, including Poland. The experimental aim was to characterise the eggs quality from two local, Polish hen breeds: Greenleg partridge (Gp) and Polbar (Pb). 4145 eggs were analyzed, at 33rd and 53rd week of age. Pb eggs were characterized by the bigger shell and yolk proportion, bigger albumen height, bigger and more intensively coloured yolk as well as better shell quality manifested in its significantly higher density and breaking strength. The Gp eggs quality is evidenced by a fatty acid profile, lower thrombogenic index, triglycerides and cholesterol concentration. The high quality of eggs, the cultural and ethical conditions, allow us to hope for a wider use of these genotypes in the production of high-quality eggs.