Volume 20(1), 2021

Review Articles

Optical 3D scanning methods in biological research - selected cases

Sławomir Paśko

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Abstract. Shape measurement by optical methods is more and more often used in research both in human and veterinary medicine. As a result of the measurement, a set with marker positions in space or a cloud of points representing a scanned surface is obtained. The collected data contains useful information, but to extract it, it is necessary to process the data using appropriate algorithms. The aim of this study was to present the algorithms that the author used to process data for the purposes of analyzes which results and conclusions were included in four articles published earlier. The algorithms concern the determination and identification of markers on the body when measuring the posture of soccer players and the analysis of the cloud of points for determining the angles describing the base and surface of the hoof bones in the polar coordinate system. The measurement systems in which data were collected are also described. Sample results obtained with the presented analysis methods are shown. For the first case these are given directional views of the markers determined in 3D space, while for the other two the result containing information about the calculated angles in the form of a table and a graph are presented. The presented data processing methods and algorithms are not only applicable to the cases on which they were tested. Directly or after a small modification, they can be applied in another area.

Original Research Articles

Smoked and fresh fish marketing in Toto Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria: a comparative analysis

Abdulhameed Abana Girei, Muhammad Attahiru Ndanitsa, Ernest Ogezi, Muhammad Ibrahim Imam

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Abstract. Fish marketing is gaining prominence especially in the rural communities as an all year-round poverty alleviation micro-enterprise requiring low capital base. This study examined the marketing performance of smoked and fresh fish in the study area. Primary data were obtained from 80 respondents selected through a two-stage sampling technique. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The objectives of the study were to: describe and compare the market structure and performance, determine the profitability, identify marketing intermediaries, and constraints to smoked and fresh fish marketing in the study area. The results showed that that both sexes involved in fish marketing with the female (58.7%) dominating. Majority (67.5%) of the marketers were within the age group of 15–44 years. The mean age was 33 years. Also, 73.7% of the respondents were married and most (58.7%) of the respondents had household size of between 1 and 5 persons and the mean household size was 6 persons. About 65% of the respondents had one form of education or the other. The mean fish marketing experience was estimated at 15 years. The benefit cost ratio for fresh fish marketing was ₦0.26. This implies that ₦0.26 was made for every ₦1 invested in the fresh fish business and the marketing efficiency for fresh fish marketing was calculated at 2.93 (293%), while the net benefit cost ratio of smoked fish was calculated at ₦1.57. This implies that ₦0.57 was made on every ₦1 invested into the smoked fish enterprise. The results further indicated significant revenue differential between smoked fish (₦380,500.00) and fresh fish (₦179,640.00) of ₦200,860.00. This accounted for about 111.82% indicating that smoked fish marketing yields higher revenue than fresh fish, in the study area. The Gini-coefficient (GC) for both fresh and smoked fish marketers were calculated at 0.5857 and 0.4801 respectively. Decentralized routes of marketing channels were observed with retailers having the highest percentage of 32.5 for the traded smoked fish, while consumers had the highest (30.0%) of the traded fresh fish. Some of the identified constraints include; seasonality, inadequate credit, poor storage facilities and poor road networks. It was recommended that the marketers organize themselves into cooperative organizations and set up strong market networks and linkages in order to benefit from available markets outside their immediate vicinities.

The relationship between fish length and otolith size and weight of Acanthopagrus arabicus Iwatsuki, 2013 (Sparidae) collected from the Iraqi marine waters

Laith Jawad, Audai Qasim, Faleh Musa Al-Zaidy, Baradi Waryani, Jitka Rutkayová

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Abstract. Fish specimens (n=75) of A. arabicus were collected from the marine waters of Iraq at Khor al-Zubair. Collection was conducted in the period February–September 2019 at depth of 10–25 m. Relationships between fish length and otolith length, width and weight were calculated for the Arabian yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus arabicus using linear models. This study represents the first data available on the relationship of fish size and otolith size and weight for A. arabicus in the Arabian Gulf area. The various relationships between fish length otolith length, width and weight were calculated: Y = -1E – 0.06X2 + 0.0106X + 5.2628, Y = 4E – 06X2 + 0.0077X + 2.1834, and Y = 9E – 07X2 + 0.0013X – 0.191 respectively.

Estimation of major nutrients in dry dog foods and their compliance with nutritional guidelines

Jagoda Kępińska-Pacelik, Wioletta Biel

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Abstract. The aim of this study was to estimate complete extruded dry food for adult dogs, with a particular focus on the nutritional value with respect to current nutritional guidelines for dogs, dietary fiber fractions, the division into breed size. Dog foods were subjected to chemical analyzes to determine the content of basic nutrients and dietary fiber fractions. The material for the research consisted of 15 maintenance foods for adult dogs (five for large breed dogs, five for small breed dogs and five for all breeds dogs). All analyzed feeds met the European Pet Food Industry Federation recommended minimum recommended levels of protein and fat. Individual tested foods were characterized by different levels of dietary fiber fractions, such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose (CEL), hemicellulose (HCEL). The group of foods for small breed dogs was characterized by the lowest mean of ME (391.23 kcal per 100 g DM). A higher level of ME (393.99 kcal per 100 g DM) was observed in the group of foods for dogs of large breeds, and the highest (397.05 kcal per 100 g DM) – in the group of foods for dogs of all breeds.

Short Communications

A preliminary study on selected utility traits and mineral composition of meat in King pigeons managed under extensive system in Poland

Danuta Majewska, Tomasz Pohorecki, Beata Matysiak

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Abstract. The study was conducted on King pigeons managed by a private breeder in Poland. The studied population consisted of three years old parent pigeon pairs of the King breed and the their offspring obtained during the breeding season (March-November). The aims of the research involved an evaluation of the reproductive performance of King pigeons, analysis of growth rate, survival, slaughter performance and mineral composition of squab meat. In the analyzed breeding season, an average of 8.7 eggs was obtained per female. The fertilization rate and hatching rate of chicks from fertilized eggs were 80.0% and 75.8%, respectively. The highest weight gain in pigeons was observed between the date of hatching and 4 weeks of age. Pigeons slaughtered at 6 weeks of age were characterized by higher slaughter performance (66.1%) than 4 week-old pigeons (60.4%). Meat of this pigeon breed is a rich source of valuable minerals such as potassium (4060 mg per kg), magnesium (296 mg per kg), iron (52 mg per kg), zinc (9 mg per kg) and silicon (30 mg per kg).

Case Studies

Importance of behavioral changes in identification of chronic pain and its causes in dogs – case report

Mirosław Karpiński, Karolina Alchimowicz, Justyna Wojtaś, Anna Łojszczyk, Aleksandra Garbiec

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Abstract. Chronic pain accompanying many diseases significantly impairs the quality of life and induces various changes in the behavior of animals. The present case report describes a dog with persistent chronic pain. The clinical signs demonstrated by the dog e.g. sneezing, rubbing the viscerocranium with thoracic legs, shaking the head, and avoidance of touch, clearly suggested discomfort localized in the muzzle. The final diagnosis of nasal adenocarcinoma was reached after over a year from the appearance of the first symptoms of discomfort. In retrospect, it is clear that the changes in the dog's behavior were caused by chronic pain. Presentation of new behaviors should be a signal to the owner indicating certain disturbances in the animal's well-being. There is a need for cooperation between the pet owner, veterinary doctor, and animal behaviorist in order to regard behavioral changes as a clue for the diagnosis of pain experienced by the animal and for treatment of its causes.
This Volume

Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica 20(1) 2021