Abstract. Folic acid has multi-faceted effects on the body. Its biological activity ensures genome stability and the normal course of the cell cycle. A deficiency of this acid can lead to serious consequences for health and life. Folic acid is the most oxidized form of folates taken with food. Folic acid is not produced in horses and must be ingested with food. Its bioavailability is also affected by environmental factors. The aim of the study was to analyse the content of folic acid in the blood serum of Polish Konik horses kept in a free-roaming herd system and a stable system. The folic acid concentrations in all horses were within the normal range of reference values for the species. Higher folic acid concentrations were noted in the free-roaming horses. Variation in the content of folic acid in the serum of stabled horses was higher than in the free-roaming horses. The management system was not found to significantly affect the serum content of folic acid in the horses.
Abstract. Acipenser gueldenstaedtii is recorded for the first time from the Euphrates River, west of Iraq. The species has not previously been mentioned as introduced to the Tigris-Euphrates River basin. There are two possibilities for this occurrence, first, the natural dispersal from adjacent Turkey and second, the aquaculture introduction. Both possibilities were discussed. Confirmation for the origin of the sporadic appearance of individuals of this species will wait for the appearance of more specimens in the inland waters of Iraq.