20th Anniversary of Acta Scientiarum Polonorum s. Zootechnica

 Volume 20(3), 2021 – Jubilee edition

Review Articles

Environmental and genetic factors influencing the rearing performance in mink (Neovison vison)

Lidia Felska-Błaszczyk

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Abstract. The aim of this study was to indicate the relationship between various genetic and environmental factors and the results of kits rearing. Among the factors determining the degree of rearing of young kits, genetic factors should be mentioned, especially the color of the mink, and the environmental factors include: duration of labor, age of mothers, mating and laying time, length of pregnancy, litter size, nutrition, body condition the female and her milk yield, indoor microclimate, bacterial and viral diseases, or the care provided by the farm staff. As a result of the analysis, it can be concluded that the number of reared mink babies is influenced by both the color variety and a number of environmental factors, and the mink farmer's task is to get to know all these aspects and treat them comprehensively. The mink breeding should be carried out in such a way that the animal welfare is as good as possible, so that the females give birth to the healthiest and strongest litters.

Hemp – its use in prevention and treatment of diseases of companion animals

Jagoda Kępińska-Pacelik, Wioletta Biel

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Abstract. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa) is a rich source of cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In this plant predominant is CBD, which is devoid of psychogenic properties. Hemp has quite a wide range of uses, ranging from cosmetology to the food and pet-food industries. CBD has many pharmacological effects, including antipsychotic, anxiolytic, sedative, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiemetic, antidiabetic and anti-ischemic effects. All these effects can be convincingly explained by the observations regarding the mechanism of action of CBD. However, it is not known in what dose hemp would cause the above-mentioned effects. Although CBD oil may have therapeutic potential, the scientific evidence supporting its use in animals is currently limited, and there are few well-controlled studies, most of which focus on companion animals.

Development and validation the efficacy of Bacillus-based fermented products as an antibiotics alternative in domestic animals

Yeong-Hsiang Cheng, Yi-Bing Horng, Wei-Jung Chen, Kuo-Feng Hua, Andrzej Dybus , Felix Shih-Hsiang Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang Yu

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Abstract. Intestinal microflora plays a critical role in the process of nutrient digestion and immunomodulation. Normal gut microbiota is responsible for resistance to colonization by exogenous pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogen invasion alters the intestinal microbiota composition and causes intestinal disorder in domestic animals. Moreover, stress, infection, or dysbiosis during the feeding period also results in an imbalanced gut microbiota, which also leads to postweaning diarrhea of piglets and necrotic enteritis of chickens. It has been demonstrated that B. licheniformis and B. subtilis has antimicrobial activity against pathogens through the production of antibacterial cyclic lipopeptide surfactin. Therefore, in the present review a series research works on the Bacillus based-fermented products efficacy and validation by alleviating the diarrhea incidence, enteritis, coccidiosis, modified gut microbiota, and decrease postpartum dysgalactia syndrome in pigs and chickens.

Weight characteristics of carcass and antlers in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) and red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in West Pomerania

Jerzy Wójcik

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Abstract. West Pomerania is one of the richest regions in Poland when it comes to big game. The review is a comparison of the weights of carcasses and antlers of red-deer stags and roe-deer bucks harvested in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship with data from other regions of Poland. It was found that the weight of the carcasses and antlers was average compared to those assessed in other regions of the country. High and significant correlations were also found between carcass weight and antlers weight in both stags of red deer and bucks of roe deer

Orthopedic diseases in dairy cattle – causes, effects, and preventions

Marcjanna Wrzecińska, Alicja Kowalczyk, Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska, Robert Kupczyński, José Pedro Araújo,

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Abstract. Locomotor diseases in cattle can have various causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Infectious agents, such as bacteria, mainly cause finger dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis. In turn, the non-infectious factors include deformation of the claws and the animal housing system, including the bedding material in the barn. Orthopedic disorders and diseases generate financial losses due to lower milk yield, extension of the calving period, or the need to implement treatment. Moreover, animals suffering from any hoof dysfunction suffer from reduced welfare, which results from the sensation of pain, discomfort, and stress associated with a hoof injury or deformation of the claw, or an infection developing on the bovine hoof. It is necessary to take measures to prevent the appearance of diseases and dysfunctions within the cow’s hooves, and early detection of disorders is associated with faster implementation of treatment.

Proteinuria – selected issues

Wiesław Skrzypczak

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Abstract. Proteins in the urine of healthy individuals of various species are present in trace, practically immeasurable amounts. Under physiological conditions, the renal glomeruli filter out proteins with a molecular weight below 69 kDa, which are then almost completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubules. Occasionally, as an effect of low temperature, physical exercise, rapid change of body position, high-protein diet, medications, or at the end of pregnancy and in the postnatal period etc., proteins may be present in the urine of healthy individuals in higher amounts. This condition is referred to as physiological proteinuria. Most often, however, proteinuria is a symptom of a kidney disorder and may lead to further damage, eventually to renal failure. Proteinuria may be a result of: (a) increased penetration of proteins, mainly of low molecular weight, through the normal filtration membrane and the inability to absorb the increased amount of proteins in the proximal tubules – overflow proteinuria, (b) increased permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier, most often as a result of its damage – glomerular proteinuria, (c) damage to the renal tubules due to failure of reabsorption mechanisms – tubular proteinuria. Excretion of larger amounts of protein in the urine is always indicative of dysfunction of the kidneys and/or of the urinary tract. Having knowledge on the kind of excreted proteins (in terms of weight/size of the molecules) is very useful in medical and veterinary practice, as it enables early identification of the causes of proteinuria and distinguishing its etiology. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the role of uromodulin as a diagnostic marker of an early phase of renal dysfunction, especially of the tubules. The observations on the interaction of the digestive and excretory systems in the regulation of proteonemia in the postnatal period also seem to be important.

Milk production and challenges in transition from conventional to robotic milking in Croatia

Pero Mijić, Tina Bobić

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Abstract. Milk production in the Republic of Croatia is facing a great challenge. Over the years, there has been a decline in the number of farms, cattle and the amount of milk production. Data for 2019 show a decrease in the number of cows for milk production of 4.4% compared to the previous year, or 14.4% over the last 5 years. Consequently, during the mentioned period, there was a drop in milk production by 15.5%. There are several reasons for this situation: high fragmentation of parcelled land, rural population moving to cities and other richer EU countries, negative population demographics, strong pressure of cheap milk imported by retail chains from western and northern EU member states, insufficiently modernized farms. All this makes it difficult for the survival of the Croatian farmer. Self-sufficiency in milk production in 2019 in Croatia was only 48.4%. In order to somewhat stop these negative trends, the Government of the Republic of Croatia is trying to encourage farmers to modernize dairy farms. One way of modernization is the introduction of milking robots. Farmers increasingly accept the proposed idea. Currently, 40 robots were installed in Croatia, distributed on 27 farms. Preliminary production results show that on robotic farms there has been an increase in milk production at the lactation level of about 528 kg. In addition to the production effect, the robotization of farms also leads to a financial effect on the entire Croatian economy.

The energetic, immunology and amino acids quality of sow's colostrum – a review

Michal Rolinec, Branislav Gálik, Daniel Bíro, Milan Šimko, Miroslav Juráček, Ondrej Hanušovský, Mária Kalúzová, Eva Mixtajová

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Abstract. Along the increasing number of live born piglets in a litter, which reduce the newborn live weight, plays the colostrum nutritional quality an essential role to the survival of newborn piglets. Concentration of colostrum nutrients is affected with several factors from which the time from the start of parturition has the greatest impact. On the second place is nutrition of pregnant sows. A lot of scientific articles were published with the goal to describe sow's colostrum nutrients. In this review we would bring closer look on the sow's colostrum, where the concentration of energy, immunoglobulins and amino acids are the main determinants for successful survive of piglets first days of life. 

Characteristic of morphological changes of the spine in selected mammal species

Paulina Jundziłł-Bogusiewicz, Joanna Gruszczyńska, Ivan Shuvar, Krzysztof Papis

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Abstract. Morphological changes of the vertebrae, whether congenital or acquired, are more and more frequent causes of movement difficulties of both humans and other species of mammals. The most frequently diagnosed pathologies of the spine include: degenerative changes, congenital defects, inflammatory diseases, and proliferative changes. This article presents the characteristics of selected morphological changes in the spine, the reasons for their occurrence, and the diagnosis. Some of abnormalities have a genetic basis, sometimes already known, such as in the case of vertebral deformity syndrome in domestic cattle, which is caused by a mutation in the SLC35A3 gene. At other times, the genetic factor is only speculated as in the case of human scoliosis - some studies indicate its autosomal dominant nature of inheritance.

Characteristics of milk from different species of farm animals with special emphasis on health-promoting ingredients

Magdalena Stobiecka, Jolanta Król, Aneta Brodziak, Joanna Wajs

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Abstract. Nowadays, consumers choose food products, pay attention not only to their nutritional value and taste, but also to health-promoting properties. Milk from various animal species is a rich source of health-enhancing components present in the fat, protein and water fractions. They exert a multidirectional impact on the human organism and limit the risk of development of many lifestyle diseases. There are differences in the content of bioactive ingredients in milk from various animal species. In comparison with cow milk, which is of key importance in the world production, sheep and donkey milk contains higher amounts of whey proteins (mainly β-Lg) and polyunsaturated acids. Camel milk deserves special attention as well due to its high content of antibacterial substances, i.e. lactoferrin and lysozyme, as well as vitamins C and E. Importantly, milk and dairy products are a rich source of essential amino acids and minerals (mainly calcium), indispensable for normal functioning of the human organism. Due to the presence of antioxidants, i.e. β-Lg, lactoferrin, CLA, and vitamins E and C, they are classified as natural antioxidants.

Original Research Articles

Determination of the Best Model to Predict Milk Dry Matter in High Milk Yielding Dairy Cattle

Burcu Kurnaz, Hasan Önder, Dariusz Piwczyński, Magdalena Kolenda, Beata Sitkowska

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Abstract. This study was aimed to determinate the best model to predict milk dry matter in high milk yielding dairy cattle. Level of milk dry matter (MDM) (%) is of great importance. The material of this study consisted of 2208 milking records of dairy cattle yielding more than 40 l per day from Polish Holstein Friesian population. In this study to estimate the milk dry matter, regression of daily milk yield (MY) (l), milk urea (MU), milk protein (MP) (%) and milk fat (MF) (%) as explanatory variables were used. To estimate the best fitting, curve estimation was used. Estimation of the curves showed that milk urea was cubic, milk yield, milk protein and milk fat were quadratic. To avoid multicollinearity where VIF value greater than 10, stepwise variable selection procedure was used. After variable selection the regression equation was obtained as MDM=2.879+1.290*MF+2.395*MP-0.039*MF^2–0.225*MP^2 with 0.946 coefficient of determination. Our results showed that milk fat (%) and milk protein (%) can be used to estimate the milk dry matter (%) with a great achievement in high milk yielding dairy cattle.

Owning a Samoyed dog - cost analysis

Katarzyna Królaczyk, Katarzyna Marta Kavetska, Katarzyna Flis

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Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects and expenditures related to maintenance of Samoyed dogs, specifying the contribution of individual factors affecting the overall economic account. The research material consisted of data obtained from surveys conducted among 111 owners of Samoyeds kept in Poland. The survey asked questions about the costs associated with owning a dog. The results were compiled with the minimum, maximum and average costs, and distinguished the percentage share of individual annual costs. The obtained results were the basis for the conclusion that owners of male dogs incur higher annual costs than owners of bitches. The largest share in the annual costs was related to feeding, and in one-off costs it was the purchase of an animal. In addition to the financial aspects of having a dog, also taken into account should be the effects and non-measurable costs associated with it. It seems that awareness of the costly nature of owning a pure-bred dog can increase the responsibility and reduce the number of abandoned dogs.

Popular Science Articles

Farm animal breeding of genetic resources for young farmers in Taiwan

Mingche Wu

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Abstract. The agricultural employed population of the year 2020 in Taiwan were 548,000 persons with 74.1% male and 24.9% female. Only 10.9% of those were young farmers with age of 15 to 34 years old. According to the survey of animal industry in 2020, there were about 10,300 livestock farms and 9,900 poultry farms in Taiwan. For those of producing milk, meat and egg in different sectors, the average annual incomes per farm is more than 20 million Taiwan dollar in dairy cattle farms and broiler chicken farms with number of rearing animals per farm were 210 cows and 27,618 birds, respectively. Farm animal genetic resources of 117 breeds in Taiwan updated to 2021, including 20 native breeds, 43 imported breeds, 39 registered new breeds, and 15 ongoing selection breeds, serve as a gene bank for the study of genetic diversity. In Taiwan experience, mule duck production with two species crossbreeding via artificial insemination of laying duck sired with mixed semen from Muscovy duck, it is an essential application of multiple-sires instrumental breeding. In free range production, females of native chicken and laying duck can be multiple-sire natural mating to ensure a higher fertility rate of ovulated eggs. Application of frozen semen and embryo may perform sire-daughter mating, brother-sister mating, or son-dam mating for increasing genetic homogeneity without inbreeding depression of reproduction performance. Inbreeding quickly brings to the surface any detrimental genes that are in a population. With the facility of paternal DNA test, single-sire breeding can be used with extended semen and intra-uterine insemination to test the allele effect of sire genome on their economic traits of pig, cattle, goat, and poultry breeds in a small-scale farming system. Advanced breeding efforts are undertaken to broaden the genetic base of conserved animals and create new breeds that meet the manifold demands in relation to quality, resilience, and sustainability in small-scale farms.
This Volume

Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica 20(3) 2021