Review Article

Feed additives in the diet of high-producing dairy cows

Daniel Radzikowski 1,2, Anna Milczarek 1 , Alina Janocha 1, Urszula Ostaszewska 1, Grażyna Niedziałek 1

1Institute of Animal Science and Fisheries, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, B. Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland

2Department of Animal Breeding, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Ciszewskiego 8, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland

Abstract. Improvement of the genetic value of cows, enabling increasingly high milk yield, requires increasingly modern feeding. Therefore, in addition to high-quality bulky feed and concentrate feed, specialized feed additives are being introduced to the diet of high-producing dairy cows. The available additives (rumen-protected essential ingredients, phytobiotics, probiotic, prebiotic and others) have a broad spectrum of activity, increasing production efficiency, protecting against metabolic disease, and improving the reproductive parameters and health of the herd. It should be borne in mind, however, that only rational use of feed additives in the diet of cows is conducive to their longevity, which is one of the most important factors improving the economic outcomes of milk production.

Keywords: rumen-protected essential ingredients, phytobiotics, probiotic, prebiotic

INTRODUCTION

The increased genetic potential of dairy cows, enabling high milk yield, requires farmers to modify the feeding system. High-quality bulky and concentrate feeds are often insufficient for a balanced feed ration that meets the nutritional requirements of a high-producing cow. For this reason, feeding solutions are sought that will allow the production potential of the cow to be fully exploited while limiting the occurrence of metabolic disease and improving reproductive parameters [Čermáková et al. 2012Čermáková, J., Kudrna, V., Illek, J., Blažková, K., Haman, J. (2012). Effects of a rumen-protected form of methionine and a methionine analogue on the lactation performance of dairy cows. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 57, 410–419. https://doi.org/10.17221/6315-CJAS, Prayitno et al. 2016Prayitno, C.H., Suwarno, A.S., Jayanegara, A. (2016). Effect of garlic extract and organic mineral supplementation on feed intake, digestibility and milk yield of lactating dairy cows. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 10(3), 213–218. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2016.213.218, Mobeen et al. 2019Mobeen, A., Riaz, M., Raza, S.H., Sharif, M., Yaqoob, M.U. (2019). Effect of bypass fat supplementation on milk yield in lactating cows and buffaloes. Pak. J. Agr. Sci., 56(3), 743–746. Google Scholar, Callaway et al. 2019Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S., Anderson, R.C., Nisbet, D.J. (2019). Efficiency of the use of pre and probiotics for dairy cows. 3rd International Symposium of Dairy Cattle, 33–54. Google Scholar, Panchasara et al. 2019Panchasara, H.H., Chaudhari, A.B., Patel, D.A., Gami, Y.M., Patel, M.P. (2019). Effect of Herbal Galactogogue (Sanjivani biokseera) on Milk Yield and Milk Constituents in Lactating Kankrej Cattle at Organised Farm. Ind. J. Vet. Sci. Biotech., 15(02), 39–41. https://doi.org/10.21887/ijvsbt.15.2.10]. The most problematic period in the feeding of high-producing dairy cows is the perinatal period, which determines milk production throughout lactation. Feeding errors at this time affect not only subsequent milk yield, but above all the animals’ health including calves [Stefańska et al. 2020Stefańska, B., Sroka, J., Katzer, F., Goliński, P., Nowak, W., (2020). The effect of probiotics, phytobiotics and their combination as feed additives in the diet of dairy calves on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites during the preweaning period. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 114738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114738]. The occurrence of acidosis, ketosis, or hypocalcaemia at the start of lactation often leads to early culling of the cow from the herd. Studies have shown that the rational use of feed additives in the diet of cows improves their longevity and reduces the use of energy and protein for milk production, which improves economic outcomes while also helping to protect the natural environment by reducing the excretion of undigested nutrients and the emission of harmful gases [Chung et al. 2007Chung, J.Y., Kim, J.H., Ko, Y.H., Jang, I.S. (2007). Effects of dietary supplemented inorganic and organic selenium on antioxidant defense systems in the intestine, serum, liver and muscle of Korean native goats. Asian Austral. J. Anim., 20(1), 52–59. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.52, Sirohi et al. 2010Sirohi, S.K., Walli, T.K., Mohanta, R.K. (2010). Supplementation effect of bypass fat on production performance of lactating crossbred cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 80(8), 733–736. Google Scholar, Cannizzo et al. 2012Cannizzo, C., Gianesella, M., Casella, S., Giudice, E., Stefani, A., Coppola, L. M., Morgante, M. (2012). Vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in blood of dairy cows during subacute ruminal acidosis. Arch. Anim. Breed., 55(3), 219–225. https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-55-219-2012, Pan et al. 2016Pan, X.H., Yang, L., Xue, F.G., Xin, H.R., Jiang, L.S., Xiong, B.H., Beckers, Y. (2016). Relationship between thiamine and subacute ruminal acidosis induced by a high-grain diet in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 99(11), 8790–8801. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-10865, Veena et al. 2018Veena, N., Wadhwa, M., Mehta, H., Barui, A.K., Puniya, A.K., Hundal, J.S., Grewal, R.S. (2018). Effect of supplementing bypass fat on milk yield, milk composition and chemical parameters of ghee in crossbred cows. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 7(10), 2604–2609. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.710.302, Mobeen et al. 2019Mobeen, A., Riaz, M., Raza, S.H., Sharif, M., Yaqoob, M.U. (2019). Effect of bypass fat supplementation on milk yield in lactating cows and buffaloes. Pak. J. Agr. Sci., 56(3), 743–746. Google Scholar]. The proper use of feed additives in the diet of high-producing cows is a challenge, due to their wide assortment and spectrum of activity.

The aim of the study was to present the importance of feed additives in the diet of high-producing dairy cows and their effect on the animals’ productivity and health, which is largely reflected in the profits of the dairy farm.

Rumen-protected supplements

Rumen-protected supplements include amino acids, protein and fat. A characteristic feature of these products is that they resist degradation in the rumen but are very well degraded in the small intestine. Rumen-protected (bypass) protein may result from the effect of formaldehyde, extrusion, and xylose on soybean, rapeseed or sunflower seed meal [Carré et al. 2007Carré, P., Evrard, J., Loison, J.P., Quinsac, A. (2007). Heat treatment of rapeseed as an alternative to formaldehyde use for protecting proteins in rumen. Quality, Nutrition, Processing And Trade, 277. Google Scholar]. Amino acids can be protected by coating with a mixture of fat and calcium, fat and protein, fat alone or by using heat and steer, reflux and ultrasound reaction at different times, temperatures and solvents [Schwab and Broderick 2017Schwab, C.G., Broderick, G.A. (2017). A 100-Year Review: Protein and amino acid nutrition in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 100(12), 10094–10112. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13320, Mazinani et al. 2019Mazinani, M., Naserian, A.A., Rude, B., Valizadeh, R., Tahmasbi, A. (2019). Production of rumen-protected essential amino acids with chemical technique. Biosci. Biotech. Res. Asia, 16(4), 789–795. https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2795]. The most important benefits of bypass protein are increased efficiency of feed conversion, increased milk yield, and improved milk parameters [Xu et al. 1998Xu, S., Harrison, J.H., Chalupa, W., Sniffen, C., Julien, W., Sato, H., Fujieda, T., Watanabe, K., Ueda, T., Suzuki, H. (1998). The effect of ruminal bypass lysine and methionine on milk yield and composition of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci., 81, 1062–1077. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75668-1, Chen et al. 2011Chen, Z.H., Broderick, G.A., Luchini, N.D., Sloan, B.K., Devillard, E. (2011). Effect of feeding different sources of rumen-protected methionine on milk production and N-utilization in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 94(4), 1978–1988. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3578, Čermáková et al. 2012Čermáková, J., Kudrna, V., Illek, J., Blažková, K., Haman, J. (2012). Effects of a rumen-protected form of methionine and a methionine analogue on the lactation performance of dairy cows. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 57, 410–419. https://doi.org/10.17221/6315-CJAS, Lee et al. 2012Lee, C., Hristov, A.N., Cassidy, T.W., Heyler, K.S., Lapierre, H., Varga, G.A., Veth M.J. de, Patton R.A., Parys, C. (2012). Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet. J. Dairy Sci., 95(10), 6042–6056. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5581]. Čermáková et al. [2012]Čermáková, J., Kudrna, V., Illek, J., Blažková, K., Haman, J. (2012). Effects of a rumen-protected form of methionine and a methionine analogue on the lactation performance of dairy cows. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 57, 410–419. https://doi.org/10.17221/6315-CJAS showed an increase in milk production and in the amount of protein and β-casein in the milk of cows whose feed was supplemented with rumen-protected methionine additives. Similarly, Lee et al. [2012]Lee, C., Hristov, A.N., Cassidy, T.W., Heyler, K.S., Lapierre, H., Varga, G.A., Veth M.J. de, Patton R.A., Parys, C. (2012). Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet. J. Dairy Sci., 95(10), 6042–6056. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5581 found that the addition of rumen-protected lysine, methionine and histidine to the feed ration of cows caused an increase in milk production of about 3.3 kg per day and an increase in protein of 0.13 kg per day. Furthermore, Xu et al. [1998]Xu, S., Harrison, J.H., Chalupa, W., Sniffen, C., Julien, W., Sato, H., Fujieda, T., Watanabe, K., Ueda, T., Suzuki, H. (1998). The effect of ruminal bypass lysine and methionine on milk yield and composition of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci., 81, 1062–1077. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75668-1 report that the use of rumen-protected amino acids absorbed in the small intestine reduced the calving interval by improving fertility in cows.

It is recommended that high-producing cows, which have an energy deficit during the early and mid-lactation, should be given rumen-protected fats, which help to prevent one of the most costly illnesses – ketosis [Duffield 2000Duffield, T. (2000). Subclinical ketosis in lactating dairy cattle. Vet. Clinics N. Amer. Food Anim. Practice, 16(2), 231–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0720(15)30103-1, Lohrenz et al. 2010Lohrenz, A.K., Duske, K., Schneider, F., Nürnberg, K., Losand, K., Seyfert, H.M., Matgegs, C.C., Hammon, H.M. (2010). Milk performance and glucose metabolism in dairy cows fed rumen-protected fat during mid lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 93, 5867- 5876. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3342]. The most common form of fat protection are coated calcium soaps of fatty acids, resistant to the rumen environment and degraded in the duodenum [Włodarczyk and Budvytis 2011Włodarczyk, R., Budvytis, M. (2011). Właściwe żywienie krów wysoko wydajnych – jak w pełni wykorzystać ich potencjał produkcyjny [Proper feeding of high-yielding cows – how to fully use their productive potential]. Życie Weter., 86(10), 771–776 [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. According to Lohrenz et al. [2010]Lohrenz, A.K., Duske, K., Schneider, F., Nürnberg, K., Losand, K., Seyfert, H.M., Matgegs, C.C., Hammon, H.M. (2010). Milk performance and glucose metabolism in dairy cows fed rumen-protected fat during mid lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 93, 5867- 5876. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3342, the use of rumen-protected fat in the diet of dairy cows in the first stage of lactation, in addition to improving the energy balance and increasing milk yield (by about 0.9 kg per day), causes a decrease (by 0.1–0.3%) in the protein content of the milk. An increase in the yield of cows as well as the fat content in milk following supplementation with rumen-protected fat has also been demonstrated by Sirohi et al. [2010]Sirohi, S.K., Walli, T.K., Mohanta, R.K. (2010). Supplementation effect of bypass fat on production performance of lactating crossbred cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 80(8), 733–736. Google Scholar, Veena et al. [2018]Veena, N., Wadhwa, M., Mehta, H., Barui, A.K., Puniya, A.K., Hundal, J.S., Grewal, R.S. (2018). Effect of supplementing bypass fat on milk yield, milk composition and chemical parameters of ghee in crossbred cows. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 7(10), 2604–2609. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.710.302 and Mobeen et al. [2019]Mobeen, A., Riaz, M., Raza, S.H., Sharif, M., Yaqoob, M.U. (2019). Effect of bypass fat supplementation on milk yield in lactating cows and buffaloes. Pak. J. Agr. Sci., 56(3), 743–746. Google Scholar. Veena et al. [2018]Veena, N., Wadhwa, M., Mehta, H., Barui, A.K., Puniya, A.K., Hundal, J.S., Grewal, R.S. (2018). Effect of supplementing bypass fat on milk yield, milk composition and chemical parameters of ghee in crossbred cows. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 7(10), 2604–2609. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.710.302 reported increased milk production by 1.84 kg per day and an increase in milk fat content by 0.26 pp.

Reis et al. [2012]Reis, M.M., Cooke, R.F., Ranches, J., Vasconcelos, J.L.M. (2012). Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 95(12), 7039–7050. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5502 showed that the addition of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the diet of cows increased the level of progesterone in the blood, helping to maintain pregnancy in the first few days after insemination. Tyagi et al. [2010]Tyagi, N., Thakur, S.S., Shelke, S.K. (2010). Effect of bypass fat supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in crossbred cows. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 42(8), 1749–1755. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9631-1 reported that the addition of rumen-protected fat to the diet of cows at the start of lactation reduced the interval between calving and first oestrus.

According to literature, most of the methods used for protecting amino acids are physical methods. Although these products are not completely acceptable as their coated layers are still sensitive and could be damaged by chewing and physical or heat treatments used in diet preparation. On the other hand, most of the chemical methods could also be used for protecting amino acids as they do not have any physical layers so would not be damage by feed processing, therefore more work is needed to understand bioavailability of these products [Mazinani et al. 2019Mazinani, M., Naserian, A.A., Rude, B., Valizadeh, R., Tahmasbi, A. (2019). Production of rumen-protected essential amino acids with chemical technique. Biosci. Biotech. Res. Asia, 16(4), 789–795. https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2795].

Propylene glycol

Propylene glycol is a glucose precursor administered in the form of daily drenching that increase glucose and insulin concentrations in the blood and improve reproductive parameters in cows [Miyoshi et al. 2001Miyoshi, S., Pate, J.L., Palmquist, D.L. (2001). Effects of propylene glycol drenching on energy balance, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, ovarian function and conception in dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 68(1–2), 29–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4320(01)00137-3, Chung et al. 2007Chung, J.Y., Kim, J.H., Ko, Y.H., Jang, I.S. (2007). Effects of dietary supplemented inorganic and organic selenium on antioxidant defense systems in the intestine, serum, liver and muscle of Korean native goats. Asian Austral. J. Anim., 20(1), 52–59. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.52, Włodarczyk and Budvytis 2011Włodarczyk, R., Budvytis, M. (2011). Właściwe żywienie krów wysoko wydajnych – jak w pełni wykorzystać ich potencjał produkcyjny [Proper feeding of high-yielding cows – how to fully use their productive potential]. Życie Weter., 86(10), 771–776 [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. Chung et al. [2007]Chung, J.Y., Kim, J.H., Ko, Y.H., Jang, I.S. (2007). Effects of dietary supplemented inorganic and organic selenium on antioxidant defense systems in the intestine, serum, liver and muscle of Korean native goats. Asian Austral. J. Anim., 20(1), 52–59. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.52 found that the addition of 250 g per day of glycerine to the diet of cows from parturition to day 21 of lactation increased the blood glucose concentration and decreased the concentration of ketone bodies in the urine. The authors also observed an increase (52 kg per day in the experimental group vs 46 kg per day in the control) in milk production in the sixth week of lactation. Similarly, Włodarczyk and Budvytis [2011]Włodarczyk, R., Budvytis, M. (2011). Właściwe żywienie krów wysoko wydajnych – jak w pełni wykorzystać ich potencjał produkcyjny [Proper feeding of high-yielding cows – how to fully use their productive potential]. Życie Weter., 86(10), 771–776 [in Polish]. Google Scholar suggest that administration of propylene glycol to cows is one way to prevent a negative energy balance in the final stage of the dry period and at the start of lactation. Miyoshi et al. [2001]Miyoshi, S., Pate, J.L., Palmquist, D.L. (2001). Effects of propylene glycol drenching on energy balance, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, ovarian function and conception in dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 68(1–2), 29–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4320(01)00137-3 reported that administration of propylene glycol to cows after calving accelerated the first ovulation by 13.2 days.

Fodder yeast

The most common feed yeasts supplements contain single-celled fungi Saccharomyces spp., Kluyveromyces spp., Candida spp., and some other (Torula spp. and Pichia spp.). The use of feed yeast in the diet of dairy cows has multiple benefits, including improved rumen function, increased milk yield, changes in the physicochemical parameters of milk, and a reduction in the somatic cell count [Dann et al. 2000Dann, H.M., Drackley, J.K., McCoy, G.C., Hutjens, M.F., Garrett, J.E. (2000). Effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on prepartum intake and postpartum intake and milk production of Jersey cows. J. Dairy Sci., 83(1), 123–127. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74863-6, Czaplicka et al. 2014Czaplicka, M., Puchajda, Z., Pawlak, M. (2014). Efektywność stosowania drożdży Saccharomyces cerevisiae w żywieniu krów mlecznych [The effectiveness of the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in feeding dairy cows]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ., 10(4), 69–75 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Xiao et al. 2016Xiao, J.X., Alugongo, G.M., Chung, R., Dong, S.Z., Li, S.L., Yoon, I., Wu, Z.H., Cao, Z.J. (2016). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae products on dairy calves: Ruminal fermentation, gastrointestinal morphology, and microbial community. J. Dairy Sci., 99, 5401–5412. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10563, Nasiri et al. 2019Nasiri, A.H., Towhidi, A., Shakeri, M., Zhandi, M., Dehghan-Banadaky, M., Pooyan, H.R., Sehati, F., Rostami, F., Karamzadeh, A., Khani, M., Ahmadi, F. (2019). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on milk production, insulin sensitivity and immune response in transition dairy cows during hot season. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 251, 112–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.03.007, Chuang et al. 2020Chuang, W.Y., Hsieh, Y.C., Lee, T.-T. (2020). The effects of fungal feed additives in animals: a review. Animals, 10, 805. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050805]. Dann et al. [2000]Dann, H.M., Drackley, J.K., McCoy, G.C., Hutjens, M.F., Garrett, J.E. (2000). Effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on prepartum intake and postpartum intake and milk production of Jersey cows. J. Dairy Sci., 83(1), 123–127. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74863-6, Yalcin et al. [2011]Yalcin, S., Yalcin, S., Can, P., Gurdal, A.O., Bagci, C., Eltan, O. (2011). The nutritive value of live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its effect on milk yield, milk composition and some blood parameters of dairy cows. Asian Austral. J. Anim., 24(10), 1377–1385. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11060, Xiao et al. 2016Xiao, J.X., Alugongo, G.M., Chung, R., Dong, S.Z., Li, S.L., Yoon, I., Wu, Z.H., Cao, Z.J. (2016). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae products on dairy calves: Ruminal fermentation, gastrointestinal morphology, and microbial community. J. Dairy Sci., 99, 5401–5412. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10563] and Nasiri et al. [2019]Nasiri, A.H., Towhidi, A., Shakeri, M., Zhandi, M., Dehghan-Banadaky, M., Pooyan, H.R., Sehati, F., Rostami, F., Karamzadeh, A., Khani, M., Ahmadi, F. (2019). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on milk production, insulin sensitivity and immune response in transition dairy cows during hot season. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 251, 112–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.03.007 assessed the effectiveness of various preparations containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in the diet of cows and showed that they had a positive effect on daily milk yield, while the effect on the content of fat and protein in the milk was varied (Table 1).

Table 1. Yield and milk composition in cows fed diets supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast
Tabela 1. Wydajność oraz skład mleka krów żywionych dietami uzupełnionymi Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Item
Wyszczególnienie

Milk yield, kg per day
Wydajność mleka, kg na dobę

Fat content, %
Zawartość tłuszczu, %

Protein content, %
Zawartość białka, %

control group
grupa kontrolna

experimental group
grupa doświadczalna

control group
grupa kontrolna

experimental group
grupa doświadczalna

control group
grupa kontrolna

experimental group
grupa doświadczalna

Dann et al. [2000]

23.49

24.97

2.96

3.14

3.66

3.63

Yalcin et al. [2011]

18.9

20.1

3.19

3.19

3.41

3.38

Xiao et al. [2016]

22.9

23.5

4.27

4.44

3.64

3.78

Nasiri et al. [2019]

42.3

43.7

3.16

3.41

2.44

2.46

Nasiri et al. [2019]Nasiri, A.H., Towhidi, A., Shakeri, M., Zhandi, M., Dehghan-Banadaky, M., Pooyan, H.R., Sehati, F., Rostami, F., Karamzadeh, A., Khani, M., Ahmadi, F. (2019). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on milk production, insulin sensitivity and immune response in transition dairy cows during hot season. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 251, 112–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.03.007 showed that prepartum dry matter intake was greater in yeast-fed cows; however, this difference disappeared after parturition. Cows receiving yeast supplement (Probio-Sacc®) produced more milk and had greater concentrations of milk fat and total solid than those receiving no yeast. Loss of body condition score from calving to d 21 postpartum tended to be lower in yeast-fed cows than control cows.

Bruno et al. [2009]Bruno, R.G.S., Rutigliano, H.M., Cerri, R.L., Robinson, P.H., Santos, J.E.P. (2009). Effect of feeding Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on performance of dairy cows during summer heat stress. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 150(3), 175–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2008.09.001 found that the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (30 g A-Max XTRA/day/cow) to the diet protects cows against a decline in milk production during hot weather. Thrune et al. [2009]Thrune, M., Bach, A., Ruiz-Moreno, M., Stern, M.D., Linn, J.G. (2009). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal pH and microbial fermentation in dairy cows: Yeast supplementation on rumen fermentation. Livest. Sci., 124(1–3), 261–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.02.007 showed that the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the form of X-Mate Pro MX 300 increased the rumen pH from 6.80 to 7.01. This confirmed that these additives could be recommended to reduce the occurrence of subacute acidosis (SARA) in high-producing dairy cows, as demonstrated by Bach et al. [2007]Bach, A., Iglesias, C., Devant, M. (2007). Daily rumen pH pattern of loose-housed dairy cattle as affected by feeding pattern and live yeast supplementation. Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech., 136(1), 146–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.09.011. Beev et al. [2007]Beev, G., Todorova, P., Tchobanova, S. (2007). Yeast cultures in ruminant nutrition. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 13, 357–374 Google Scholar observed that the addition of live yeast cultures to the feed ration of dairy cows increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria in the rumen, which improved digestion of fibre and reducing the accumulation of lactates in the rumen fluid.

Yeast supplementation on ruminants has been shown to regulate rumen pH, microbial composition and fiber fermentation [Terre et al. 2015Terre, M., Maynou, G., Bach, A., Gauthier, M. (2015). Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 supplementation on performance and rumen microbiota of dairy calves. Prof. Anim. Sci., 31, 153–158. https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2014-01384, Bach et al. 2018Bach, A., Guasch, I., Elcoso, G., Chaucheyras Durand, F., Castex, M., Fabregas, F., Garcia Fruitos, E., Aris, A. (2018). Changes in gene expression in the rumen and colon epithelia during the dry period through lactation of dairy cows and effects of live yeast supplementation. J. Dairy Sci., 101, 2631–2640. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13212]. Recent studies suggest the supplementation of yeast may also influence immune function [Zanello et al. 2011Zanello, G., Berri, M., Dupont, J., Sizaret, P.V., Dlnca, R., Salmon, H., Meurens, F. (2011). Saccharomyces cerevisiae modulates immune gene expressions and inhibits ETEC-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. PLoS ONE 6:e18573. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018573, Nasiri et al. 2019Nasiri, A.H., Towhidi, A., Shakeri, M., Zhandi, M., Dehghan-Banadaky, M., Pooyan, H.R., Sehati, F., Rostami, F., Karamzadeh, A., Khani, M., Ahmadi, F. (2019). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on milk production, insulin sensitivity and immune response in transition dairy cows during hot season. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 251, 112–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.03.007, Gao et al. 2020Gao, J., Liu, Y-C., Wang, Y., Li, H., Wang, X‑M., Wu, Y., Zhang, D‑R., Gao, S., Qi, Z‑I., (2020). Impact of yeast and lactic acid bacteria on mastitis and milk microbiota composition of dairy cows. AMB Express, 10.1, 22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-020-0953-8]. Zanello et al. [2011]Zanello, G., Berri, M., Dupont, J., Sizaret, P.V., Dlnca, R., Salmon, H., Meurens, F. (2011). Saccharomyces cerevisiae modulates immune gene expressions and inhibits ETEC-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. PLoS ONE 6:e18573. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018573 reported that yeast inhibit the Escherichia coli – induced expression of proinflammation transcripts and protein. Yuan et al. [2015]Yuan, K., Mendonca, L.G., Hulbert, L.E., Mamedova, L.K., Muckey, M.B., Shen, Y., Elrod, C.C., Bradford, B.J. (2015). Yeast product supplementation modulated humoral and mucosal immunity and uterine inflammatory signals in transition dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 98, 3236–3246. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8469 analyzed the effects of dietary yeast supplementation on uterine inflammatory and they found that although no treatment effect was detected for incidence of subclinical endometritis, supplementary yeast decreased uterine IL-6 mRNA abundance and improved neutrophil myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase expression on transition cow, as well as fecal IgA concentration, which indicating relieved uterine inflammation and strengthened immune function. Nasiri et al. [2019]Nasiri, A.H., Towhidi, A., Shakeri, M., Zhandi, M., Dehghan-Banadaky, M., Pooyan, H.R., Sehati, F., Rostami, F., Karamzadeh, A., Khani, M., Ahmadi, F. (2019). Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on milk production, insulin sensitivity and immune response in transition dairy cows during hot season. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 251, 112–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.03.007 reported that supplementation of 4 g a day of yeast (Probio-Sacc®) fostered the lymphocyte proliferative response in transition dairy cows, which indicates an improved immune function.

Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics

Probiotics and prebiotics are used to protect the body against pathogens and to enhance the immune system of cows [Galus-Barchan et al. 2018Galus-Barchan, A., Radkowska, I., Szewczyk, A. (2018). Nowe spojrzenie na probiotyki w hodowli bydła [A new look at probiotics in cattle breeding]. Wiad. Zootech., 56(3), 79–84. [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. Probiotics are live microorganisms, which confer a health benefit to the host when administered in adequate amounts (FAO-WHO 2008FAO-WHO (2008). Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food, including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. http://www.who.int. Google Scholar). The most important microorganisms used in the production of probiotics are the bacteria: Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus; and yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger [Chiquette et al. 2008Chiquette, J., Allison, M.J., Rasmussen, M.A. (2008). Prevotella bryantii 25A used as a probiotic in early-lactation dairy cows: effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci., 91(9), 3536–3543. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0849, Aikman et al. 2011Aikman, P.C., Henning, P.H., Humphries, D.J., Horn, C.H. (2011). Rumen pH and fermentation characteristics in dairy cows supplemented with Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 94(6), 2840–2849. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3783, Uyeno et al. 2015Uyeno, Y., Shigemori, S., Shimosato, T. (2015). Effect of probiotics/prebiotics on cattle health and productivity. Microbes Environ., 30(2), 126–132. https://doi.org/10.1264/jsme2.ME14176, Callaway et al. 2019Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S., Anderson, R.C., Nisbet, D.J. (2019). Efficiency of the use of pre and probiotics for dairy cows. 3rd International Symposium of Dairy Cattle, 33–54. Google Scholar, Gao et al. 2020Gao, J., Liu, Y-C., Wang, Y., Li, H., Wang, X‑M., Wu, Y., Zhang, D‑R., Gao, S., Qi, Z‑I., (2020). Impact of yeast and lactic acid bacteria on mastitis and milk microbiota composition of dairy cows. AMB Express, 10.1, 22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-020-0953-8]. Prebiotics, on the other hand, contain nutritional compounds that serve as food for beneficial bacteria living in the digestive tract of animals [Uyeno et al. 2015Uyeno, Y., Shigemori, S., Shimosato, T. (2015). Effect of probiotics/prebiotics on cattle health and productivity. Microbes Environ., 30(2), 126–132. https://doi.org/10.1264/jsme2.ME14176]. Prebiotics are produced using mannooligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides [Gaggìa et al. 2010Gaggìa, F., Mattarelli, P., Biavati, B. (2010). Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 141, 15–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.02.031, Ghosh and Mehla 2012Ghosh, S., Mehla, R.K., (2012). Influence of dietary supplementation of prebiotics (mannanoligosaccharide) on the performance of crossbred calves. Trop. Anim. Health Pro., 44(3), 617–622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9944-8].

The main purpose of administration of probiotics to cattle is to stabilize the population of microbes in the digestive tract and regulate the processes taking place in the rumen. It is particularly recommended to administer probiotics to cows in the perinatal period together with easily digestible, easily fermentable feedstuffs. Administration of large amounts of concentrate feeds increases production of volatile fatty acids and the lactic acid concentration in the rumen, thereby reducing the rumen pH. Reduced rumen pH creates unfavourable conditions for bacteria, resulting in ruminal acidosis [Krause and Oetzel 2006Krause, K.M., Oetzel, G.R. (2006). Understanding and preventing subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy herds: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 126(3–4), 215–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.08.004]. Ruminal acidosis in dairy cows at the start of lactation leads to a sharp decline in milk production and contributes to other metabolic diseases [Abdela 2016Abdela, N. (2016). Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and its consequence in dairy cattle: A review of past and recent research at global prospective. Achiev. Life Sci., 10(2), 187–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.11.006]. The proper functioning of this part of the cow’s digestive system affects the functioning of the entire body. Studies show that probiotic preparations for cows may regulate rumen function, milk yield, milk parameters, health, and resistance to unfavourable conditions in dairy cows. Nocek and Kautz [2006]Nocek, J.E., Kautz, W.P. (2006). Direct-fed microbial supplementation on ruminal digestion, health, and performance of pre-and postpartum dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 89(1), 260–266. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72090-2 showed that supplementation of feed for dairy cows in the perinatal period with a preparation containing Enterococcus faecium strains increased uptake of dry matter, both before and after parturition, and positively affected its digestion in the rumen, resulting in increased milk production (by 2.3 kg per day). To reduce the concentration of lactic acid in the rumen, cows should be given probiotics containing bacteria that degrade it: Megasphaera elsdenii, Selenomonas ruminantium, and Propionibacterium spp. [Henning et al. 2010Henning, P.H., Horn, C.H., Steyn, D.G., Meissner, H.H., Hagg, F.M. (2010). The potential of Megasphaera elsdenii isolates to control ruminal acidosis. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 157(1-2), 13–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2009.12.011, Calsamiglia et al. 2012Calsamiglia, S., Blanch, M., Ferret, A., Moya, D. (2012). Is subacute ruminal acidosis a pH related problem? Causes and tools for its control. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 172(1–2), 42–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.12.007]. Aikman et al. [2011]Aikman, P.C., Henning, P.H., Humphries, D.J., Horn, C.H. (2011). Rumen pH and fermentation characteristics in dairy cows supplemented with Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 94(6), 2840–2849. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3783 reported that administration of Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 bacteria to cows in the form of a probiotic stabilized the rumen pH, while the breakdown of lactic acid by these bacteria caused a change in the fermentation process, increasing production of propionate at the expense of acetate. A higher concentration of propionate has a positive effect on the energy balance and milk production in cows after calving. In an in vitro study by Luo et al. [2017]Luo, J., Ranadheera, C.S., King, S., Evans, C., Baines, S. (2017). In vitro investigation of the effect of dairy propionibacteria on rumen pH, lactic acid and volatile fatty acids. J. Integrat. Agric., 16(7), 1566–1575. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61556-3, probiotic preparations containing Propionibacterium spp. accelerated the decrease in the lactic acid concentration in the rumen, preventing acidosis in cows. Supplements containing Propionibacterium spp. have also been found to have a beneficial effect, increasing milk production in cows [Stein et al. 2006Stein, D.R., Allen, D.T., Perry, E.B., Bruner, J.C., Gates, K.W., Rehberger, T.G., Mertz K., Jones D., Spicer, L.J. (2006). Effects of feeding propionibacteria to dairy cows on milk yield, milk components, and reproduction. J. Dairy Sci., 89(1), 111–125. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72074-4]. Similarly, Sun et al. [2013]Sun, P., Wang, J.Q., Deng, L.F. (2013). Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows. Animal, 7(2), 216–222. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112001188 showed that a probiotic containing strains of Bacillus subtilis natto (isolated from fermented soybeans) added to the diet of cows in the amount of 0.5 · 1011 and 1.0 · 1011 CFU increased milk production by 2.2 and 3.2 kg per day, respectively, relative to the control group. An increase was also noted in daily production of protein, fat and lactose, as well as a decrease in the somatic cell count in the milk. Similar results were obtained by Peng et al. [2012]Peng, H., Wang, J.Q., Kang, H.Y., Dong, S.H., Sun, P., Bu, D.P., Zhou, L.Y. (2012). Effect of feeding Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product on milk production and composition, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation in early lactation dairy cows. J. Anim. Physiolog. Anim. Nutr., 96(3), 506–512. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01173.x and Souza et al. [2017]Souza, V.L., Lopes, N.M., Zacaroni, O.F., Silveira, V.A., Pereira, R.A.N., Freitas, J.A., Almeida R., Salvati G.G.S., Pereira, M.N. (2017). Lactation performance and diet digestibility of dairy cows in response to the supplementation of Bacillus subtilis spores. Livest. Sci., 200, 35–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.023 following the use of a probiotic containing strains of Bacillus subtilis in the diet of cows. According to Xu et al. [2017]Xu, H., Huang, W., Hou, Q., Kwok, L.Y., Sun, Z., Ma, H., Zhao F., Lee Y.K., Zhang, H. (2017). The effects of probiotics administration on the milk production, milk components and fecal bacteria microbiota of dairy cows. Sci. Bull., 62(11), 767–774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scib.2017.04.019, a diet supplemented with strains of Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum) increases production of milk and the immune proteins contained in it, i.e. immunoglobulin, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase, reducing the somatic cell count. Probiotics containing strains of Prevotella bryantii increase the fat content in the milk of cows and decrease the amount of lactic acid in the rumen [Chiquette et al. 2008Chiquette, J., Allison, M.J., Rasmussen, M.A. (2008). Prevotella bryantii 25A used as a probiotic in early-lactation dairy cows: effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci., 91(9), 3536–3543. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0849].

The mechanism that probiotics exert beneficial effects on host health is closely associated with the capability to produce antagonistic substances, adhesion to host tissues and colonization to different sites of the host surfaces [Espeche et al. 2009Espeche, M.C., Otero, M.C., Sesma, F., Nader Macias, M.E. (2009). Screening of surface properties and antagonistic substances production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from the mammary gland of healthy and mastitis cows. Vet. Microbiol., 135, 346–357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.09.078]. Know is that intramammary LAB incubation restore balance in microbiota of the mammary gland and improve systemic immune function [Pellegrino et al. 2017Pellegrino, M., Berardo, N., Giraudo, J., Nader Macias, M.E.F., Bogni, C. (2017). Bovine mastitis prevention: humoral and cellular response of dairy cows inoculated with lactic acid bacteria at the dry-off period. Benef. Microbes., 8, 589–596. https://doi.org/10.3920/BM2016.0194]. On the other hand Gao et al. [2020]Gao, J., Liu, Y-C., Wang, Y., Li, H., Wang, X‑M., Wu, Y., Zhang, D‑R., Gao, S., Qi, Z‑I., (2020). Impact of yeast and lactic acid bacteria on mastitis and milk microbiota composition of dairy cows. AMB Express, 10.1, 22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-020-0953-8 showed beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of LAB on mastitis and milk microorganisms of lactating cow.

Synbiotics are combinations of probiotics and prebiotics [Markowiak and Śliżewska 2018Markowiak, P., Śliżewska, K. (2018). The role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in animal nutrition. Gut Pathog., 10(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13099-018-0250-0]. The combination of beneficial bacteria and oligosaccharides that serve as food for them significantly increases the effectiveness of these supplements [Malik et al. 2019Malik, J.K., Prakash, A., Srivastava, A.K., Gupta, R.C. (2019). Synbiotics in animal health and production, in: R. Gupta, A. Srivastava, R. Lall (eds) Nutraceuticals in Veterinary Medicine. Springer, 278–301. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04624-8\_20]. Yosuda et al. [2007]Yosuda, K., Hashikawa, S., Sakamoto, H., Tomita, Y., Shibata, S., Fukata, T. (2007). A new synbiotic consisting of Lactobacillus casei subsp casei and dextran improves milk production in Holstein dairy cows. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 69(2), 205–208. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.69.205 found that cows whose feed was supplemented with a synbiotic (freeze-dried Lactobacillus casei 1.0 · 107 CFU + 5% dextran – a glucose polymer) in the amount of 10 g per cow per day showed increased resistance to high air temperature and humidity. Moreover, the use of the synbiotic improved milk yield, decreased the somatic cell count in the milk, and increased resistance to mastitis.

Phytobiotics

Phytobiotics, commonly known as herbal plant bioactive compounds, have been used in human and veterinary medicine to prevent diseases, enhance performance in stress-related syndromes, and increase resistance against infections [Rochfort et al. 2008Rochfort, S., Parker, A.J., Dunshea, F.R. (2008). Plant bioactives for ruminant health and productivity. Phytochemistry 69, 299–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.08.017]. Also Grela et al. [2013]Grela, E.R., Klebaniuk, R., Kwiecień, M., Pietrzak, K. (2013). Fitobiotyki w produkcji zwierzęcej [Phytobiotics in animal production]. Przeg. Hod., 3, 21–24 [in Polish]. Google Scholar claimed the term ‘phytobiotics’ refers to herbal preparations containing specific biologically active substances. They are used in the prevention and treatment of many diseases affecting farm animals. However, it is important to consider the effects that various substances contained in herbs can have on one another, so as to avoid antagonistic interactions [Budny et al. 2012Budny, A., Kupczyński, R., Sobolewska, S., Korczyński, M., Zawadzki, W. (2012). Samolecznictwo i ziołolecznictwo w profilaktyce i leczeniu zwierząt gospodarskich [Self-medication and herb-medication as alternative in prevention and treatment by farm animals]. Acta Sci. Pol., Medicina Veterinaria, 11(1), 5–24 [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. The biologically active substances in these preparations include alkaloids, essential oils, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, pectins, organic acids, mineral salts, and vitamins [Semeniuk et al. 2008Semeniuk, W., Klebaniuk, R., Grela, E.R. (2008). Dodatki paszowe w żywieniu zwierząt [Feed additives in animal nutrition]. E.R. Grela (ed) Monographs, Dzierdziówka – Lublin, 139–154 [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. According to Mohanty et al. [2014]Mohanty, I., Senapati, M.R., Jena, D., Behera, P.C. (2014). Ethnoveterinary importance of herbal galactogogues. A review. Vet. World, 7(5). https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2014.325-330, herbs with galactagogue properties include goat’s rue, nettle, caraway, and common hops. Many studies [Grabowicz et al. 2004Grabowicz, M., Doroszewski, P., Szterek, P., Mikołajaczk, J., Piłat, J. (2004). Wpływ kiszonki z ostropoestu plamistego na przemiany metaboliczne krów w okresie okołoporodowym [Influence of whole crop milk thistle silage on cows' metabolism in a transition period]. Med. Weter., 60(7), 759- 762 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Prayitno et al. 2016Prayitno, C.H., Suwarno, A.S., Jayanegara, A. (2016). Effect of garlic extract and organic mineral supplementation on feed intake, digestibility and milk yield of lactating dairy cows. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 10(3), 213–218. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2016.213.218, Panchasara et al. 2019Panchasara, H.H., Chaudhari, A.B., Patel, D.A., Gami, Y.M., Patel, M.P. (2019). Effect of Herbal Galactogogue (Sanjivani biokseera) on Milk Yield and Milk Constituents in Lactating Kankrej Cattle at Organised Farm. Ind. J. Vet. Sci. Biotech., 15(02), 39–41. https://doi.org/10.21887/ijvsbt.15.2.10] indicate that the use of herbs in the diet of ruminants improves feed conversion and production results, beneficially modifies the bacterial microbiome of the rumen, and affects the immune system. The authors found that the administration of herb supplements to cows increased milk yield and improved the quality of the milk. Similarly, Kraszewski et al. [2008]Kraszewski, J., Wawrzyński, M., Radecki, P. (2008). Effect of herb supplementation of cow feeds on udder health and cytological and microbiological picture of milk. [Wpływ dodawania ziół do paszy dla krów na zdrowotność wymion i obraz cytologiczno-mikrobiologiczny mleka]. Wiad. Zootech., XLVI, 3, 3–7 [in Polish]. Google Scholar demonstrated positive effects of a herb mixture (chamomile, yarrow, common agrimony, nettle, ribwort plantain, St. John’s wort, and hairy lady’s mantle) administered to cows. The authors noted an increase in the technological parameters of milk and a marked decrease (by 232,000 per cm3) in the somatic cell count of the experimental cows. Moreover, they noted a decrease in the number of pathogens inducing mastitis. The frequency of Staphylococcus aureus decreased from 57.12% to 3.09%, and that of Streptococcus agalactiae from 14.14% to 2.23%. A significant decrease in the number of streptococci and Escherichia coli bacteria was also observed in the milk of cows receiving the herb mixture. On the other hand, Hosoda et al. [2006]Hosoda, K., Matsuyama, H., Park, W., Nishida, T., Ishida, M. (2006). Supplementary effect of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and milk production in early lactating dairy cows. Anim. Sci. J., 77, 503–509. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2006.00378.x found no changes in the somatic cell count or technological parameters of milk obtained from cows whose feed contained a 5% mint supplement. The inclusion of mint in the diet only increased the fat content in the milk. Węglarzy et al. [2010]Węglarzy, K., Klęczek, Cz., Bereza, M., Pellar, A. (2010). Znaczenie zastosowania świeżych ziół w żywieniu bydła mlecznego [The importance of using fresh herbs in the feeding of dairy cattle]. Mat. XVIII Szkoły Zimowej Hodowców Bydła, Zakopane, 218–227 [in Polish]. Google Scholar found that the addition of fresh caraway and purple coneflower caused a significant increase in milk protein and fat. The use of phytobiotics also affects the health-promoting value of milk; Benchaar et al. [2007]Benchaar, C., Petit, H.V., Berthiaume, R., Ouellet, D.R., Ciquette, J., Chouinard, P.Y. (2007). Effects of essential oils on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or corn silage. J. Dairy Sci., 90, 886–897. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71572-2 demonstrated that the addition (2 g per day) of a mixture of natural essential oils (eugenol, thymol, guaiacol, limonene, and vanillin) to the diet of cows caused an increase in the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk fat.

Klebaniuk et al. [2014]Klebaniuk, R., Grela, E.R., Kowalczuk-Vasilev, E., Olcha, M., Góźdź, J. (2014). Efektywność stosowania mieszanek ziołowych w ekologicznym chowie bydła [The effectiveness of the use of organic herbal blends for cattle.]. Wiad. Zootech., 52(3), 56–63 [in Polish]. Google Scholar showed that a mixture of herbs (thyme, oregano, cinnamon and coneflower) in the diet of cows during the dry period has a beneficial effect on colostrum quality (increased content of immunoglobulins) in the first few hours after calving.

Grabowicz et al. [2004]Grabowicz, M., Doroszewski, P., Szterek, P., Mikołajaczk, J., Piłat, J. (2004). Wpływ kiszonki z ostropoestu plamistego na przemiany metaboliczne krów w okresie okołoporodowym [Influence of whole crop milk thistle silage on cows' metabolism in a transition period]. Med. Weter., 60(7), 759- 762 [in Polish]. Google Scholar reported that the use of milk thistle silage in the diet of cows in the final stage of the dry period and the start of lactation had a positive effect on enzyme activity in the blood serum.

Vitamins

High milk yield in cows requires that they receive an adequate amount of vitamins essential for the proper function of the body. The presence of microbes colonizing the rumen of cows makes it possible to meet the requirement for vitamin K and the B vitamins [Weiss and Gonzalo 2006Weiss, W.P., Gonzalo, F. (2006). Are your cows getting the vitamin they need. Adv. Dairy Technol., 18, 249–259. Google Scholar, Castagnino et al. 2016Castagnino, D.S., Seck, M., Beaudet, V., Kammes, K.L., Linton, J.V., Allen, M.S., Gervais R., Chouinard P.Y., Girard, C.L. (2016). Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 99(3), 1884–1894. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10319]. But last reports show that high-producing cows it is likely that the demand for vitamin B increases with milk yield. The supplementation B vitamins need to be rumen-protected because ruminal microflora destroy them [Girard 2017Girard, C.L. (2017). New approaches, development, and improvement of methodologies for the assessment of B-vitamin requirements in dairy cows. R. Bras. Zootec., 46(7), 614–620. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1806-92902017000700009]. All vitamins must be supplied in the form of vitamin supplements. The most important vitamins include fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E and water-soluble vitamins B8 (biotin), PP (niacin) and B4 (choline).

Vitamin A (retinol) and its pro-vitamin β-carotene are essential for a number of processes taking place in the body. According to Von Lintig and Vogt [2004]Von Lintig, J., Vogt, K. (2004). Vitamin A formation in animals: molecular identification and functional characterization of carotene cleaving enzymes. J. Nutr., 134(1), 251–256. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.1.251S, vitamin A enhances cellular resistance to pathogens, while β-carotene is a strong antioxidant, which increases the antibacterial activity of leukocytes. LeBlanc et al. [2004]LeBlanc, S.J., Herdt, T.H., Seymour, W.M., Duffield, T.F., Leslie, K.E. (2004). Peripartum serum vitamin E, retinol, and beta-carotene in dairy cattle and their associations with disease. J. Dairy Sci., 87(3), 609–619. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73203-8 demonstrated that administration of vitamin A or β-carotene to cows in the amount of 150,000–250,000 IU per day or 300–600 mg per day, respectively, in the final phase of the dry period reduces the incidence of mastitis in cows after calving. Yasar and Abdullah [2006]Yasar, A., Abdullah, G. (2006). Relationship between vitamin A and beta-carotene levels during the postpartum period and fertility parameters in cows with and without retained placenta. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy, 50, 93–96. Google Scholar noted that an increased level of vitamin A during oestrus of cows has a beneficial effect on the quality of the embryo. The use of a β-carotene supplement at the start of lactation improves fertility parameters in cows: overt oestrus by day 60 after calving, a higher conception rate, and fewer diseases of the reproductive system, including ovarian cysts and placental retention [Kaewlamun et al. 2011Kaewlamun, W., Okouyi, M., Humblot, P., Techakumphu, M., Ponter, A.A. (2011). Does supplementing dairy cows with β-carotene during the dry period affect postpartum ovarian activity, progesterone, and cervical and uterine involution?. Theriogenology, 75(6), 1029–1038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.11.010].

The most important functions of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) include controlling the plasma concentrations of calcium and inorganic phosphate and influencing the cellular immune response and reproductive system. Hymøller et al. [2009]Hymøller, L., Jensen, S.K., Lindqvist, H., Johansson, B., Nielsen, M.O., Nadeau, E. (2009). Supplementing dairy steers and organically managed dairy cows with synthetic vitamin D 3 is unnecessary at pasture during exposure to summer sunlight. J. Dairy Res., 76(03), 372–378. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029909004130 noted higher concentrations of vitamin D in the blood of cattle during the summer than in the winter, and much higher amounts in animals with access to sunny cattle runs relative to those kept indoors.

Vitamin E functions as a strong antioxidant, protecting cell membranes against the adverse effects of fatty acid oxidation products, but can also form a barrier against oxidation for other vitamins [Focant et al. 1998Focant, M., Mignolet E.M., Clabots M.F.T., Dalemans B.D., Larondelle Y. (1998). The effect of vitamin E supplementation of cow diets containing rapeseed and linseed on the prevention of milk fat oxidation. J. Dairy Sci., 81, 1095–1101. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75671-1, Pottier et al. 2006Pottier, J., Focant, M., Debier, C., De Buysser, G., Goffe, C., Mignolet, E., Froidmont, E., Larondelle, Y. (2006). Effect of dietary vitamin E on rumen biohydrogenation pathways and milk fat depression in dairy cows fed high-fat diets. J. Dairy Sci., 89(2), 685–692. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72131-2]. The use of a vitamin E supplement in cow feed reduces the risk of postpartum retention of foetal membranes, has a beneficial effect on foetal growth, and reduces the calving-to-conception interval [Allison and Laven 2000Allison, R. D., Laven, R. A. (2000). Effect of vitamin E supplementation on the health and fertility of dairy cows: a review. Vet. Rec., 147(25), 703–708. Google Scholar, Bourne et al. 2007Bourne, N., Laven, R., Wathes, D.C., Martinez, T., McGowan, M. (2007). A meta-analysis of the effects of Vitamin E supplementation on the incidence of retained foetal membranes in dairy cows. Theriogenology, 67(3), 494–501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.08.015]. Horn et al. [2010]Horn, M.J., Van Emon, M.L., Gunn, P.J., Eicher, S.D., Lemenager, R.P., Burgess, J., Pyatt N., Lake, S. L. (2010). Effects of maternal natural (RRR α-tocopherol acetate) or synthetic (all-rac α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E supplementation on suckling calf performance, colostrum immunoglobulin G, and immune function. J. Anim. Sci., 88(9), 3128–3135. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2035 found that vitamin E has a beneficial effect on the immune system of cows through its role in antibody production, particularly class G immunoglobulins. According to Batra et al. [1992]Batra, T.R., Hidiroglou, M., Smith, M.W. (1992). Effect of vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in dairy cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 72(2), 287–297. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas92-036, vitamin E improves udder health, reducing the somatic cell count in milk.

Vitamin B8 (biotin) is essential for the production of keratin, as well as substances cementing the cells of the hoof horn [Tomlinson et al. 2004Tomlinson, D.J., Mülling, C.H., Fakler, T.M. (2004). Invited review: formation of keratins in the bovine claw: roles of hormones, minerals, and vitamins in functional claw integrity. J. Dairy Sci., 87(4), 797–809. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73223-3]. Hedges et al. [2001]Hedges, J., Blowey, R.W., Packington, A.J., O'Callaghan, C.J., Green, L.E. (2001). A longitudinal field trial of the effect of biotin on lameness in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 84, 1969–1975. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74639-5 found that prophylactic use of vitamin B8 (10–20 mg per day) in the diet of cows improves hoof condition and reduces the incidence of hoof diseases. According to Higuchi et al. [2004]Higuchi, H., Maeda, T., Nakamura, M., Kuwano, A., Kawai K., Kasamatsu, M., Nagahata, H. (2004). Effects of biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of samples of solar horn of Holstein cows. Can. J. Vet. Res., 68, 93–97. Google Scholar, the beneficial effect of biotin on hoof health is due to an increase in the fat concentration in the hoof horn. Kinal et al. [2011]Kinal, S., Twardoń, J., Bednarski, M., Preś, J., Bodarski, R., Słupczyńska, M., Ochota, M., Dejneka, G.J. (2011). The influence of administration of biotin and zinc chelate (Zn-methionine) to cows in the first and second trimester of lactation on their health and productivity. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 14(1), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10181-011-0015-x demonstrated that supplementation of the diet of cows with 10 mg of biotin increased the amount of milk obtained (on average by 6.6 kg per day). The addition of biotin is particularly recommended for high-producing cows fed large amounts of concentrate feed, in which biotin synthesis in the rumen may be impaired, so that it is consumed by ruminal bacteria and does not reach the intestine [Tomlinson et al. 2004Tomlinson, D.J., Mülling, C.H., Fakler, T.M. (2004). Invited review: formation of keratins in the bovine claw: roles of hormones, minerals, and vitamins in functional claw integrity. J. Dairy Sci., 87(4), 797–809. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73223-3].

Vitamin PP (niacin) affects the development of protozoa colonizing the digestive tract of ruminants and alters lipid metabolism by decreasing the rate of lipolysis [Niehoff et al. 2009Niehoff, I.D., Hüther, L., Lebzien P. (2009). Niacin for dairy cattle: a review. Brit. J. Nutr., 101(01), 5–19. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508043377, Morey et al. 2011Morey, S.D., Mamedova, L.K., Anderson, D.E., Armendariz, C.K., Titgemeyer, E.C., Bradford, B.J. (2011). Effects of encapsulated niacin on metabolism and production of per parturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 94(10), 5090–5104. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4304, Yuan et al. 2012Yuan, K., Shaver, R.D., Bertics, S.J., Espineira, M., Grummer, R.R. (2012). Effect of rumen-protected niacin on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and performance of transition dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 95(5), 2673–2679. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5096]. According to Morey et al. [2011]Morey, S.D., Mamedova, L.K., Anderson, D.E., Armendariz, C.K., Titgemeyer, E.C., Bradford, B.J. (2011). Effects of encapsulated niacin on metabolism and production of per parturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 94(10), 5090–5104. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4304 and Yuan et al. [2012]Yuan, K., Shaver, R.D., Bertics, S.J., Espineira, M., Grummer, R.R. (2012). Effect of rumen-protected niacin on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and performance of transition dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 95(5), 2673–2679. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5096, the addition (12 g per day) of vitamin PP to the diet of cows has no effect on the physicochemical parameters of milk or the amount of milk produced during lactation.

Vitamin B4 (choline) has a very broad application and effect on dairy cows. It is administered in rumen-protected form, as choline chloride. Baldi and Pinnotti [2006]Baldi, A., Pinnotti, L. (2006). Choline metabolism in high-producing dairy cows: Metabolic and nutritional basis. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 86: 207-212. https://doi.org/10.4141/A05-061 showed that the addition of choline chloride to the feed ration caused a 7% increase in the milk yield of cows. Similarly, Mohsen et al. [2011]Mohsen, M.K., Gaffar, H.M.A., Khalafalla, M.M., Shitta, A.A., Yousif, A.M. (2011). Effect of rumen protected choline supplementation on digestibility, rumen activity and milk yield in lactating Friesian cows. Slovak J. Anim. Sci., 44(1), 13–20. Google Scholar reported that supplementation of feed with choline chloride in the amount of 15 g per day and 30 g per day increased milk yield by 8.6% and 11.5%, respectively, and fat content in the milk by 3.5% and 5.3%. Jayaprakash et al. [2016]Jayaprakash, G., Sathiyabarathi, M., Robert, M.A., Tamilmani, T. (2016). Ruen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition. Vet. World, 9(8), 837–841. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2016.837-841 also confirmed that the use of vitamin B4 improves health, increases milk yield, and alters the composition of milk. According to Pinnotti et al. [2005], choline improves lipid transport in the blood, thereby reducing the risk of fatty liver and subclinical ketosis. Suksombat et al. [2012]Suksombat, W., Homkao, J., Klangnork, P. (2012). Effect of biotin and rumen protected choline supplementation on milk production, milk composition, live weight change and blood parameters in lactating dairy weights. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 10, 2186–2192. https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2012.1116.1122 demonstrated that choline supplementation also reduces the incidence of mastitis and postpartum foetal membrane retention.

Dihydropyridine

Dihydropyridine (DHP) is a type of Ca2+ channel antagonist, which can inhibit Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm and decrease the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca2+. DHP has been used as an additive in animal diets due to its antioxidant ability to protect oil, vitamin A, beta-carotene from oxidation [Wu 2020Wu, G. (2020). Important roles of dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in human nutrition and health. Amino Acids, 52, 329–360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-020-02823-6]. Meanwhile, DHP can alter the levels of hormones in the serum, which is beneficial for the promotion of the growth of animals, enhancing reproductive ability, and increasing milking capacity. Yu et al. [2020]Yu, M.-F., Zhao, X.-M., Cai, H., Yi, J.-M., Hua, G.-H. (2020). Dihydropyridine enhances the antioxidant capacities of lactating dairy cows under heat stress condition. Animals, 10, 1812. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101812 indicated the decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidation (T-AOC) levels and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level during HS season, after supplementation DHP cow's diet. Meanwhile, antioxidant indexes (SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC) were positively correlated with milk yield, whereas MDA exhibited a significant negative correlation with milk yield. Dihydropyridine treatment significantly restored SOD and GSH-Px levels under heat stress. The findings indicated that the DHP altered ruminal bacterial community mainly composed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes in dairy cows under HS. Results confirm that dihydropyridine can enhance the antioxidant abilities of dairy cows with favorable effects on ruminal microbial communities under HS, further alleviating heat stress on dairy cows.

Anion salts

Inappropriate proportions of elements or inadequate supplementation, especially during the perinatal period, leads to metabolic disorders in dairy cows. One of these is milk fever, which results from a sharp decrease in the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in the blood in the first few days after calving [Mulligan and Doherty 2008Mulligan, F.J., Doherty, M.L. (2008). Production diseases of the transition cow. Vet. J., 176(1), 3–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.018]. One means of preventing milk fever is to administer anion salts, which include chlorides, sulphates, and phosphates of magnesium, calcium and ammonium [Oetzel and Barmore 1993Oetzel, G.R., Barmore, J.A. (1993). Intake of a concentrate mixture containing various anionic salts fed to pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 76(6), 1617–1623. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77495-0, \hyperref[GoffEtAl–2004Relat]{Goff et al. 2004Goff, J.P., Ruiz, R., Horst, R.L. (2004). Relative acidifying activity of anionic salts commonly used to prevent milk fever. J. Dairy Sci., 87(5), 1245- 1255. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73275-0Goff, J.P., Ruiz, R., Horst, R.L. (2004). Relative acidifying activity of anionic salts commonly used to prevent milk fever. J. Dairy Sci., 87, 1245–1255. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73275-0}]. Administration of anion salts regulates the cation-anion balance in the circulatory system by mobilizing the release of Ca from the bones and increasing its absorption from the digestive tract of cows after parturition [\hyperref[GoffEtAl–2004Relat]{Goff et al. 2004Goff, J.P., Ruiz, R., Horst, R.L. (2004). Relative acidifying activity of anionic salts commonly used to prevent milk fever. J. Dairy Sci., 87(5), 1245- 1255. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73275-0Goff, J.P., Ruiz, R., Horst, R.L. (2004). Relative acidifying activity of anionic salts commonly used to prevent milk fever. J. Dairy Sci., 87, 1245–1255. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73275-0}, Liesegang et al. 2007Liesegang, A., Chiappi, C., Risteli, J., Kessler, J., Hess, H.D. (2007). Influence of different calcium contents in diets supplemented with anionic salts on bone metabolism in periparturient dairy cows. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 91(3-‐4), 120–119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2006.00651.x]. Maintaining a correct cation-anion balance by administering anion salts to dairy cows has a positive effect on feed consumption and yield [Razzaghi et al. 2012Razzaghi, A., Aliarabi, H., Tabatabaei, M.M., Saki, A.A., Valizadeh, R., Zamani, P. (2012). Effect of dietary cation-anion difference during prepartum and postpartum periods on performance, blood and urine minerals status of Holstein dairy cow. Asian Austral. J. Anim., 25(4), 486–495. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11325, Janocha et al. 2019Janocha, A., Milczarek, A., Kryszak, K., Nowak, D. (2019). Comparison of feeding models in cows during dry period and their effect on the incidence of perinatal diseases as well as on reproductive and productive traits. Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 18(4), 39–46. https://doi.org/10.21005/asp.2019.18.4.05].

CONCLUSIONS

At present, animals used in milk production have high genetic potential and thus require a balanced diet with high-quality feed enriched with specialized feed additives. These are not cheap, so their use is associated with profitable production. Protection against metabolic diseases, improvement in reproductive parameters, and improved health in the herd are only some of the benefits of including feed additives in the diet of cows. Their positive effect on the milk yield of cows and improvement in the physicochemical parameters of milk should be stressed as well. To sum up, even the most effective feed additives cannot be a means of eliminating all irregularities arising in feed production, feed preservation, and balancing of feed rations for high-producing dairy cows.

REFERENCES

  1. Abdela, N. (2016).
    Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and its consequence in dairy cattle: A review of past and recent research at global prospective.
    Achiev. Life Sci., 10(2), 187–196.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.11.006
  2. Aikman, P.C., Henning, P.H., Humphries, D.J., Horn, C.H. (2011).
    Rumen pH and fermentation characteristics in dairy cows supplemented with Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 in early lactation.
    J. Dairy Sci., 94(6), 2840–2849.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3783
  3. Allison, R. D., Laven, R. A. (2000).
    Effect of vitamin E supplementation on the health and fertility of dairy cows: a review.
    Vet. Rec., 147(25), 703–708.
    Google Scholar
  4. Bach, A., Guasch, I., Elcoso, G., Chaucheyras Durand, F., Castex, M., Fabregas, F., Garcia Fruitos, E., Aris, A. (2018).
    Changes in gene expression in the rumen and colon epithelia during the dry period through lactation of dairy cows and effects of live yeast supplementation.
    J. Dairy Sci., 101, 2631–2640.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13212
  5. Bach, A., Iglesias, C., Devant, M. (2007).
    Daily rumen pH pattern of loose-housed dairy cattle as affected by feeding pattern and live yeast supplementation.
    Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech., 136(1), 146–153.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.09.011
  6. Baldi, A., Pinnotti, L. (2006).
    Choline metabolism in high-producing dairy cows: Metabolic and nutritional basis.
    Can. J. Anim. Sci., 86: 207-212.
    https://doi.org/10.4141/A05-061
  7. Batra, T.R., Hidiroglou, M., Smith, M.W. (1992).
    Effect of vitamin E on incidence of mastitis in dairy cattle.
    Can. J. Anim. Sci., 72(2), 287–297.
    https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas92-036
  8. Beev, G., Todorova, P., Tchobanova, S. (2007).
    Yeast cultures in ruminant nutrition.
    Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 13, 357–374
    Google Scholar
  9. Benchaar, C., Petit, H.V., Berthiaume, R., Ouellet, D.R., Ciquette, J., Chouinard, P.Y. (2007).
    Effects of essential oils on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or corn silage.
    J. Dairy Sci., 90, 886–897.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71572-2
  10. Bourne, N., Laven, R., Wathes, D.C., Martinez, T., McGowan, M. (2007).
    A meta-analysis of the effects of Vitamin E supplementation on the incidence of retained foetal membranes in dairy cows.
    Theriogenology, 67(3), 494–501.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.08.015
  11. Bruno, R.G.S., Rutigliano, H.M., Cerri, R.L., Robinson, P.H., Santos, J.E.P. (2009).
    Effect of feeding Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on performance of dairy cows during summer heat stress.
    Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 150(3), 175–186.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2008.09.001
  12. Budny, A., Kupczyński, R., Sobolewska, S., Korczyński, M., Zawadzki, W. (2012).
    Samolecznictwo i ziołolecznictwo w profilaktyce i leczeniu zwierząt gospodarskich [Self-medication and herb-medication as alternative in prevention and treatment by farm animals].
    Acta Sci. Pol., Medicina Veterinaria, 11(1), 5–24 [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  13. Calsamiglia, S., Blanch, M., Ferret, A., Moya, D. (2012).
    Is subacute ruminal acidosis a pH related problem? Causes and tools for its control.
    Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 172(1–2), 42–50.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.12.007
  14. Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S., Anderson, R.C., Nisbet, D.J. (2019).
    Efficiency of the use of pre and probiotics for dairy cows.
    3rd International Symposium of Dairy Cattle, 33–54.
    Google Scholar
  15. Cannizzo, C., Gianesella, M., Casella, S., Giudice, E., Stefani, A., Coppola, L. M., Morgante, M. (2012).
    Vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in blood of dairy cows during subacute ruminal acidosis.
    Arch. Anim. Breed., 55(3), 219–225.
    https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-55-219-2012
  16. Carré, P., Evrard, J., Loison, J.P., Quinsac, A. (2007).
    Heat treatment of rapeseed as an alternative to formaldehyde use for protecting proteins in rumen.
    Quality, Nutrition, Processing And Trade, 277.
    Google Scholar
  17. Castagnino, D.S., Seck, M., Beaudet, V., Kammes, K.L., Linton, J.V., Allen, M.S., Gervais R., Chouinard P.Y., Girard, C.L. (2016).
    Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 99(3), 1884–1894.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10319
  18. Čermáková, J., Kudrna, V., Illek, J., Blažková, K., Haman, J. (2012).
    Effects of a rumen-protected form of methionine and a methionine analogue on the lactation performance of dairy cows.
    Czech J. Anim. Sci., 57, 410–419.
    https://doi.org/10.17221/6315-CJAS
  19. Chen, Z.H., Broderick, G.A., Luchini, N.D., Sloan, B.K., Devillard, E. (2011).
    Effect of feeding different sources of rumen-protected methionine on milk production and N-utilization in lactating dairy cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 94(4), 1978–1988.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3578
  20. Chiquette, J., Allison, M.J., Rasmussen, M.A. (2008).
    Prevotella bryantii 25A used as a probiotic in early-lactation dairy cows: effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and milk composition.
    J. Dairy Sci., 91(9), 3536–3543.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0849
  21. Chuang, W.Y., Hsieh, Y.C., Lee, T.-T. (2020).
    The effects of fungal feed additives in animals: a review.
    Animals, 10, 805.
    https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050805
  22. Chung, J.Y., Kim, J.H., Ko, Y.H., Jang, I.S. (2007).
    Effects of dietary supplemented inorganic and organic selenium on antioxidant defense systems in the intestine, serum, liver and muscle of Korean native goats.
    Asian Austral. J. Anim., 20(1), 52–59.
    https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.52
  23. Czaplicka, M., Puchajda, Z., Pawlak, M. (2014).
    Efektywność stosowania drożdży Saccharomyces cerevisiae w żywieniu krów mlecznych [The effectiveness of the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in feeding dairy cows].
    Rocz. Nauk. PTZ., 10(4), 69–75 [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  24. Dann, H.M., Drackley, J.K., McCoy, G.C., Hutjens, M.F., Garrett, J.E. (2000).
    Effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on prepartum intake and postpartum intake and milk production of Jersey cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 83(1), 123–127.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74863-6
  25. Duffield, T. (2000).
    Subclinical ketosis in lactating dairy cattle.
    Vet. Clinics N. Amer. Food Anim. Practice, 16(2), 231–253.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0720(15)30103-1
  26. Espeche, M.C., Otero, M.C., Sesma, F., Nader Macias, M.E. (2009).
    Screening of surface properties and antagonistic substances production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from the mammary gland of healthy and mastitis cows.
    Vet. Microbiol., 135, 346–357.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.09.078
  27. FAO-WHO (2008).
    Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food, including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria.
    http://www.who.int.
    Google Scholar
  28. Focant, M., Mignolet E.M., Clabots M.F.T., Dalemans B.D., Larondelle Y. (1998).
    The effect of vitamin E supplementation of cow diets containing rapeseed and linseed on the prevention of milk fat oxidation.
    J. Dairy Sci., 81, 1095–1101.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75671-1
  29. Gaggìa, F., Mattarelli, P., Biavati, B. (2010).
    Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production.
    Int. J. Food Microbiol., 141, 15–28.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.02.031
  30. Galus-Barchan, A., Radkowska, I., Szewczyk, A. (2018).
    Nowe spojrzenie na probiotyki w hodowli bydła [A new look at probiotics in cattle breeding].
    Wiad. Zootech., 56(3), 79–84. [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  31. Gao, J., Liu, Y-C., Wang, Y., Li, H., Wang, X‑M., Wu, Y., Zhang, D‑R., Gao, S., Qi, Z‑I., (2020).
    Impact of yeast and lactic acid bacteria on mastitis and milk microbiota composition of dairy cows.
    AMB Express, 10.1, 22.
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-020-0953-8
  32. Ghosh, S., Mehla, R.K., (2012).
    Influence of dietary supplementation of prebiotics (mannanoligosaccharide) on the performance of crossbred calves.
    Trop. Anim. Health Pro., 44(3), 617–622.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9944-8
  33. Girard, C.L. (2017).
    New approaches, development, and improvement of methodologies for the assessment of B-vitamin requirements in dairy cows.
    R. Bras. Zootec., 46(7), 614–620.
    https://doi.org/10.1590/s1806-92902017000700009
  34. Goff, J.P., Ruiz, R., Horst, R.L. (2004).
    Relative acidifying activity of anionic salts commonly used to prevent milk fever.
    J. Dairy Sci., 87, 1245–1255.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73275-0
  35. Grabowicz, M., Doroszewski, P., Szterek, P., Mikołajaczk, J., Piłat, J. (2004).
    Wpływ kiszonki z ostropoestu plamistego na przemiany metaboliczne krów w okresie okołoporodowym [Influence of whole crop milk thistle silage on cows' metabolism in a transition period].
    Med. Weter., 60(7), 759- 762 [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  36. Grela, E.R., Klebaniuk, R., Kwiecień, M., Pietrzak, K. (2013).
    Fitobiotyki w produkcji zwierzęcej [Phytobiotics in animal production].
    Przeg. Hod., 3, 21–24 [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  37. Goff, J.P., Ruiz, R., Horst, R.L. (2004).
    Relative acidifying activity of anionic salts commonly used to prevent milk fever.
    J. Dairy Sci., 87(5), 1245- 1255.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73275-0
  38. Hedges, J., Blowey, R.W., Packington, A.J., O'Callaghan, C.J., Green, L.E. (2001).
    A longitudinal field trial of the effect of biotin on lameness in dairy cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 84, 1969–1975.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74639-5
  39. Henning, P.H., Horn, C.H., Steyn, D.G., Meissner, H.H., Hagg, F.M. (2010).
    The potential of Megasphaera elsdenii isolates to control ruminal acidosis.
    Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 157(1-2), 13–19.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2009.12.011
  40. Higuchi, H., Maeda, T., Nakamura, M., Kuwano, A., Kawai K., Kasamatsu, M., Nagahata, H. (2004).
    Effects of biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of samples of solar horn of Holstein cows.
    Can. J. Vet. Res., 68, 93–97.
    Google Scholar
  41. Horn, M.J., Van Emon, M.L., Gunn, P.J., Eicher, S.D., Lemenager, R.P., Burgess, J., Pyatt N., Lake, S. L. (2010).
    Effects of maternal natural (RRR α-tocopherol acetate) or synthetic (all-rac α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E supplementation on suckling calf performance, colostrum immunoglobulin G, and immune function.
    J. Anim. Sci., 88(9), 3128–3135.
    https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2035
  42. Hosoda, K., Matsuyama, H., Park, W., Nishida, T., Ishida, M. (2006).
    Supplementary effect of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and milk production in early lactating dairy cows.
    Anim. Sci. J., 77, 503–509.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2006.00378.x
  43. Hymøller, L., Jensen, S.K., Lindqvist, H., Johansson, B., Nielsen, M.O., Nadeau, E. (2009).
    Supplementing dairy steers and organically managed dairy cows with synthetic vitamin D 3 is unnecessary at pasture during exposure to summer sunlight.
    J. Dairy Res., 76(03), 372–378.
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029909004130
  44. Janocha, A., Milczarek, A., Kryszak, K., Nowak, D. (2019).
    Comparison of feeding models in cows during dry period and their effect on the incidence of perinatal diseases as well as on reproductive and productive traits.
    Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 18(4), 39–46.
    https://doi.org/10.21005/asp.2019.18.4.05
  45. Jayaprakash, G., Sathiyabarathi, M., Robert, M.A., Tamilmani, T. (2016).
    Ruen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition.
    Vet. World, 9(8), 837–841.
    https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2016.837-841
  46. Kaewlamun, W., Okouyi, M., Humblot, P., Techakumphu, M., Ponter, A.A. (2011).
    Does supplementing dairy cows with β-carotene during the dry period affect postpartum ovarian activity, progesterone, and cervical and uterine involution?.
    Theriogenology, 75(6), 1029–1038.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.11.010
  47. Kinal, S., Twardoń, J., Bednarski, M., Preś, J., Bodarski, R., Słupczyńska, M., Ochota, M., Dejneka, G.J. (2011).
    The influence of administration of biotin and zinc chelate (Zn-methionine) to cows in the first and second trimester of lactation on their health and productivity.
    Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 14(1), 103–110.
    https://doi.org/10.2478/v10181-011-0015-x
  48. Klebaniuk, R., Grela, E.R., Kowalczuk-Vasilev, E., Olcha, M., Góźdź, J. (2014).
    Efektywność stosowania mieszanek ziołowych w ekologicznym chowie bydła [The effectiveness of the use of organic herbal blends for cattle.].
    Wiad. Zootech., 52(3), 56–63 [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  49. Kraszewski, J., Wawrzyński, M., Radecki, P. (2008).
    Effect of herb supplementation of cow feeds on udder health and cytological and microbiological picture of milk.
    [Wpływ dodawania ziół do paszy dla krów na zdrowotność wymion i obraz cytologiczno-mikrobiologiczny mleka]. Wiad. Zootech., XLVI, 3, 3–7 [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  50. Krause, K.M., Oetzel, G.R. (2006).
    Understanding and preventing subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy herds: A review.
    Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 126(3–4), 215–236.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.08.004
  51. LeBlanc, S.J., Herdt, T.H., Seymour, W.M., Duffield, T.F., Leslie, K.E. (2004).
    Peripartum serum vitamin E, retinol, and beta-carotene in dairy cattle and their associations with disease.
    J. Dairy Sci., 87(3), 609–619.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73203-8
  52. Lee, C., Hristov, A.N., Cassidy, T.W., Heyler, K.S., Lapierre, H., Varga, G.A., Veth M.J. de, Patton R.A., Parys, C. (2012).
    Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet.
    J. Dairy Sci., 95(10), 6042–6056.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5581
  53. Liesegang, A., Chiappi, C., Risteli, J., Kessler, J., Hess, H.D. (2007).
    Influence of different calcium contents in diets supplemented with anionic salts on bone metabolism in periparturient dairy cows.
    J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 91(3-‐4), 120–119.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2006.00651.x
  54. Lohrenz, A.K., Duske, K., Schneider, F., Nürnberg, K., Losand, K., Seyfert, H.M., Matgegs, C.C., Hammon, H.M. (2010).
    Milk performance and glucose metabolism in dairy cows fed rumen-protected fat during mid lactation.
    J. Dairy Sci., 93, 5867- 5876.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3342
  55. Luo, J., Ranadheera, C.S., King, S., Evans, C., Baines, S. (2017).
    In vitro investigation of the effect of dairy propionibacteria on rumen pH, lactic acid and volatile fatty acids.
    J. Integrat. Agric., 16(7), 1566–1575.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61556-3
  56. Malik, J.K., Prakash, A., Srivastava, A.K., Gupta, R.C. (2019).
    Synbiotics in animal health and production, in: R.
    Gupta, A. Srivastava, R. Lall (eds) Nutraceuticals in Veterinary Medicine. Springer, 278–301.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04624-8\_20
  57. Markowiak, P., Śliżewska, K. (2018).
    The role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in animal nutrition.
    Gut Pathog., 10(1), 21.
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s13099-018-0250-0
  58. Mazinani, M., Naserian, A.A., Rude, B., Valizadeh, R., Tahmasbi, A. (2019).
    Production of rumen-protected essential amino acids with chemical technique.
    Biosci. Biotech. Res. Asia, 16(4), 789–795.
    https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2795
  59. Miyoshi, S., Pate, J.L., Palmquist, D.L. (2001).
    Effects of propylene glycol drenching on energy balance, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, ovarian function and conception in dairy cows.
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 68(1–2), 29–43.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4320(01)00137-3
  60. Mobeen, A., Riaz, M., Raza, S.H., Sharif, M., Yaqoob, M.U. (2019).
    Effect of bypass fat supplementation on milk yield in lactating cows and buffaloes.
    Pak. J. Agr. Sci., 56(3), 743–746.
    Google Scholar
  61. Mohanty, I., Senapati, M.R., Jena, D., Behera, P.C. (2014).
    Ethnoveterinary importance of herbal galactogogues.
    A review. Vet. World, 7(5).
    https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2014.325-330
  62. Mohsen, M.K., Gaffar, H.M.A., Khalafalla, M.M., Shitta, A.A., Yousif, A.M. (2011).
    Effect of rumen protected choline supplementation on digestibility, rumen activity and milk yield in lactating Friesian cows.
    Slovak J. Anim. Sci., 44(1), 13–20.
    Google Scholar
  63. Morey, S.D., Mamedova, L.K., Anderson, D.E., Armendariz, C.K., Titgemeyer, E.C., Bradford, B.J. (2011).
    Effects of encapsulated niacin on metabolism and production of per parturient dairy cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 94(10), 5090–5104.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4304
  64. Mulligan, F.J., Doherty, M.L. (2008).
    Production diseases of the transition cow.
    Vet. J., 176(1), 3–9.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.018
  65. Nasiri, A.H., Towhidi, A., Shakeri, M., Zhandi, M., Dehghan-Banadaky, M., Pooyan, H.R., Sehati, F., Rostami, F., Karamzadeh, A., Khani, M., Ahmadi, F. (2019).
    Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on milk production, insulin sensitivity and immune response in transition dairy cows during hot season.
    Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 251, 112–123.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.03.007
  66. Niehoff, I.D., Hüther, L., Lebzien P. (2009).
    Niacin for dairy cattle: a review.
    Brit. J. Nutr., 101(01), 5–19.
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508043377
  67. Nocek, J.E., Kautz, W.P. (2006).
    Direct-fed microbial supplementation on ruminal digestion, health, and performance of pre-and postpartum dairy cattle.
    J. Dairy Sci., 89(1), 260–266.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72090-2
  68. Oetzel, G.R., Barmore, J.A. (1993).
    Intake of a concentrate mixture containing various anionic salts fed to pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 76(6), 1617–1623.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77495-0
  69. Pan, X.H., Yang, L., Xue, F.G., Xin, H.R., Jiang, L.S., Xiong, B.H., Beckers, Y. (2016).
    Relationship between thiamine and subacute ruminal acidosis induced by a high-grain diet in dairy cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 99(11), 8790–8801.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-10865
  70. Panchasara, H.H., Chaudhari, A.B., Patel, D.A., Gami, Y.M., Patel, M.P. (2019).
    Effect of Herbal Galactogogue (Sanjivani biokseera) on Milk Yield and Milk Constituents in Lactating Kankrej Cattle at Organised Farm.
    Ind. J. Vet. Sci. Biotech., 15(02), 39–41.
    https://doi.org/10.21887/ijvsbt.15.2.10
  71. Pellegrino, M., Berardo, N., Giraudo, J., Nader Macias, M.E.F., Bogni, C. (2017).
    Bovine mastitis prevention: humoral and cellular response of dairy cows inoculated with lactic acid bacteria at the dry-off period.
    Benef. Microbes., 8, 589–596.
    https://doi.org/10.3920/BM2016.0194
  72. Peng, H., Wang, J.Q., Kang, H.Y., Dong, S.H., Sun, P., Bu, D.P., Zhou, L.Y. (2012).
    Effect of feeding Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product on milk production and composition, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation in early lactation dairy cows.
    J. Anim. Physiolog. Anim. Nutr., 96(3), 506–512.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01173.x
  73. Pottier, J., Focant, M., Debier, C., De Buysser, G., Goffe, C., Mignolet, E., Froidmont, E., Larondelle, Y. (2006).
    Effect of dietary vitamin E on rumen biohydrogenation pathways and milk fat depression in dairy cows fed high-fat diets.
    J. Dairy Sci., 89(2), 685–692.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72131-2
  74. Prayitno, C.H., Suwarno, A.S., Jayanegara, A. (2016).
    Effect of garlic extract and organic mineral supplementation on feed intake, digestibility and milk yield of lactating dairy cows.
    Asian J. Anim. Sci., 10(3), 213–218.
    https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2016.213.218
  75. Razzaghi, A., Aliarabi, H., Tabatabaei, M.M., Saki, A.A., Valizadeh, R., Zamani, P. (2012).
    Effect of dietary cation-anion difference during prepartum and postpartum periods on performance, blood and urine minerals status of Holstein dairy cow.
    Asian Austral. J. Anim., 25(4), 486–495.
    https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11325
  76. Reis, M.M., Cooke, R.F., Ranches, J., Vasconcelos, J.L.M. (2012).
    Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 95(12), 7039–7050.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5502
  77. Rochfort, S., Parker, A.J., Dunshea, F.R. (2008).
    Plant bioactives for ruminant health and productivity.
    Phytochemistry 69, 299–322.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.08.017
  78. Schwab, C.G., Broderick, G.A. (2017).
    A 100-Year Review: Protein and amino acid nutrition in dairy cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 100(12), 10094–10112.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13320
  79. Semeniuk, W., Klebaniuk, R., Grela, E.R. (2008).
    Dodatki paszowe w żywieniu zwierząt [Feed additives in animal nutrition].
    E.R. Grela (ed) Monographs, Dzierdziówka – Lublin, 139–154 [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  80. Sirohi, S.K., Walli, T.K., Mohanta, R.K. (2010).
    Supplementation effect of bypass fat on production performance of lactating crossbred cows.
    Indian J. Anim. Sci., 80(8), 733–736.
    Google Scholar
  81. Souza, V.L., Lopes, N.M., Zacaroni, O.F., Silveira, V.A., Pereira, R.A.N., Freitas, J.A., Almeida R., Salvati G.G.S., Pereira, M.N. (2017).
    Lactation performance and diet digestibility of dairy cows in response to the supplementation of Bacillus subtilis spores.
    Livest. Sci., 200, 35–39.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.023
  82. Stefańska, B., Sroka, J., Katzer, F., Goliński, P., Nowak, W., (2020).
    The effect of probiotics, phytobiotics and their combination as feed additives in the diet of dairy calves on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites during the preweaning period.
    Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 114738.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114738
  83. Stein, D.R., Allen, D.T., Perry, E.B., Bruner, J.C., Gates, K.W., Rehberger, T.G., Mertz K., Jones D., Spicer, L.J. (2006).
    Effects of feeding propionibacteria to dairy cows on milk yield, milk components, and reproduction.
    J. Dairy Sci., 89(1), 111–125.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72074-4
  84. Suksombat, W., Homkao, J., Klangnork, P. (2012).
    Effect of biotin and rumen protected choline supplementation on milk production, milk composition, live weight change and blood parameters in lactating dairy weights.
    J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 10, 2186–2192.
    https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2012.1116.1122
  85. Sun, P., Wang, J.Q., Deng, L.F. (2013).
    Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.
    Animal, 7(2), 216–222.
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112001188
  86. Terre, M., Maynou, G., Bach, A., Gauthier, M. (2015).
    Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 supplementation on performance and rumen microbiota of dairy calves.
    Prof. Anim. Sci., 31, 153–158.
    https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2014-01384
  87. Thrune, M., Bach, A., Ruiz-Moreno, M., Stern, M.D., Linn, J.G. (2009).
    Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal pH and microbial fermentation in dairy cows: Yeast supplementation on rumen fermentation.
    Livest. Sci., 124(1–3), 261–265.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.02.007
  88. Tyagi, N., Thakur, S.S., Shelke, S.K. (2010).
    Effect of bypass fat supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in crossbred cows.
    Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 42(8), 1749–1755.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9631-1
  89. Tomlinson, D.J., Mülling, C.H., Fakler, T.M. (2004).
    Invited review: formation of keratins in the bovine claw: roles of hormones, minerals, and vitamins in functional claw integrity.
    J. Dairy Sci., 87(4), 797–809.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73223-3
  90. Uyeno, Y., Shigemori, S., Shimosato, T. (2015).
    Effect of probiotics/prebiotics on cattle health and productivity.
    Microbes Environ., 30(2), 126–132.
    https://doi.org/10.1264/jsme2.ME14176
  91. Veena, N., Wadhwa, M., Mehta, H., Barui, A.K., Puniya, A.K., Hundal, J.S., Grewal, R.S. (2018).
    Effect of supplementing bypass fat on milk yield, milk composition and chemical parameters of ghee in crossbred cows.
    Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 7(10), 2604–2609.
    https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.710.302
  92. Von Lintig, J., Vogt, K. (2004).
    Vitamin A formation in animals: molecular identification and functional characterization of carotene cleaving enzymes.
    J. Nutr., 134(1), 251–256.
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.1.251S
  93. Weiss, W.P., Gonzalo, F. (2006).
    Are your cows getting the vitamin they need.
    Adv. Dairy Technol., 18, 249–259.
    Google Scholar
  94. Węglarzy, K., Klęczek, Cz., Bereza, M., Pellar, A. (2010).
    Znaczenie zastosowania świeżych ziół w żywieniu bydła mlecznego [The importance of using fresh herbs in the feeding of dairy cattle].
    Mat. XVIII Szkoły Zimowej Hodowców Bydła, Zakopane, 218–227 [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  95. Włodarczyk, R., Budvytis, M. (2011).
    Właściwe żywienie krów wysoko wydajnych – jak w pełni wykorzystać ich potencjał produkcyjny [Proper feeding of high-yielding cows – how to fully use their productive potential].
    Życie Weter., 86(10), 771–776 [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  96. Wu, G. (2020).
    Important roles of dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in human nutrition and health.
    Amino Acids, 52, 329–360.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-020-02823-6
  97. Xiao, J.X., Alugongo, G.M., Chung, R., Dong, S.Z., Li, S.L., Yoon, I., Wu, Z.H., Cao, Z.J. (2016).
    Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae products on dairy calves: Ruminal fermentation, gastrointestinal morphology, and microbial community.
    J. Dairy Sci., 99, 5401–5412.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10563
  98. Xu, S., Harrison, J.H., Chalupa, W., Sniffen, C., Julien, W., Sato, H., Fujieda, T., Watanabe, K., Ueda, T., Suzuki, H. (1998).
    The effect of ruminal bypass lysine and methionine on milk yield and composition of lactating cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 81, 1062–1077.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75668-1
  99. Xu, H., Huang, W., Hou, Q., Kwok, L.Y., Sun, Z., Ma, H., Zhao F., Lee Y.K., Zhang, H. (2017).
    The effects of probiotics administration on the milk production, milk components and fecal bacteria microbiota of dairy cows.
    Sci. Bull., 62(11), 767–774.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scib.2017.04.019
  100. Yalcin, S., Yalcin, S., Can, P., Gurdal, A.O., Bagci, C., Eltan, O. (2011).
    The nutritive value of live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its effect on milk yield, milk composition and some blood parameters of dairy cows.
    Asian Austral. J. Anim., 24(10), 1377–1385.
    https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11060
  101. Yasar, A., Abdullah, G. (2006).
    Relationship between vitamin A and beta-carotene levels during the postpartum period and fertility parameters in cows with and without retained placenta.
    Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy, 50, 93–96.
    Google Scholar
  102. Yosuda, K., Hashikawa, S., Sakamoto, H., Tomita, Y., Shibata, S., Fukata, T. (2007).
    A new synbiotic consisting of Lactobacillus casei subsp casei and dextran improves milk production in Holstein dairy cows.
    J. Vet. Med. Sci., 69(2), 205–208.
    https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.69.205
  103. Yu, M.-F., Zhao, X.-M., Cai, H., Yi, J.-M., Hua, G.-H. (2020).
    Dihydropyridine enhances the antioxidant capacities of lactating dairy cows under heat stress condition.
    Animals, 10, 1812.
    https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101812
  104. Yuan, K., Mendonca, L.G., Hulbert, L.E., Mamedova, L.K., Muckey, M.B., Shen, Y., Elrod, C.C., Bradford, B.J. (2015).
    Yeast product supplementation modulated humoral and mucosal immunity and uterine inflammatory signals in transition dairy cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 98, 3236–3246.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8469
  105. Yuan, K., Shaver, R.D., Bertics, S.J., Espineira, M., Grummer, R.R. (2012).
    Effect of rumen-protected niacin on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and performance of transition dairy cows.
    J. Dairy Sci., 95(5), 2673–2679.
    https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5096
  106. Zanello, G., Berri, M., Dupont, J., Sizaret, P.V., Dlnca, R., Salmon, H., Meurens, F. (2011).
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae modulates immune gene expressions and inhibits ETEC-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells.
    PLoS ONE 6:e18573.
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018573
 

 

This Article

Received: 27 Aug 2020

Accepted: 15 Sep 2020

Published online: 28 Jan 2021

Accesses: 430

How to cite

Radzikowski, D., Milczarek, A., Janocha, A., Ostaszewska, U., Niedziałek, G., (2020). Feed additives in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 19(4), 5–16. DOI: 10.21005/asp.2020.19.4.01.