Short Communication

The state of breeding and use of Caspian horses in Europe and around the world

Michał Pluta 1 , Katarzyna Bańka1, Angelika Cieśla 2, Łukasz Rogala1

1Department of Horse Breeding and Use, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

2Department of Monogastric Animal Sciences, Laboratory of Horse Breeding and Animal Assisted Therapy, West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin, Janickiego 29, 71-270 Szczecin, Poland

Abstract. The Caspian horse is one of the oldest horse breeds in the world and probably the first oriental domesticated horse. For centuries thought the breed had been considered extinct, until it was "rediscovered" in 1965 in Iran. The breed is quite important in the history of horse breeding, however, it is still little known. The aim of the work was to present the characteristics of the breed (conformation, characteristics and usage) and to assess the current state of the population in Europe and around the World. A survey was conduct among 18 breeders and included 120 horses. The population size was estimated based on the analysis of two breed registries. This study confirms and supplies information about Caspian horses available in the literature. Caspian horses can be very useful in refining small breeds of horses and could bring many profits in Polish breeding of sport ponies.

Keywords: Caspian horse, Iranian horse, population, horse usage

INTRODUCTION

Caspian horses (also called Caspian ponies) is an ancient breed of a small, oriental horse (Fig. 1), which originate from the region of former Persia, now Iran [Ghavi Hossein-Zadeha and Ghorbani 2018Ghavi Hossein-Zadeha, N., Ghorbani, A. (2018). Modeling the growth curves for body weight and some biometric traits in Caspian horses (Equus ferus caballus) using non-linear mixed models. Mamm. Biol., 93, 5–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2018.07.004]. We know, from ancient art and literature, a small breed of Median horses – precious royal horses, which were imported also to Assyria, Greece and Egypt [Harrison 2000Harrison, L. (2000). Les chevaux dans l'art, la photographie et la littérature. Evergreen, Kolonia. Google Scholar, MacDonald 2009MacDonald, M.C.A. (2009). Wheels in a land of camels: another look at the chariot in Arabia. Arab. Archeol. Epigraph., 20, 156–184. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0471.2009.00312.x]. In 2011, on the archeological site Gohar Tappeh in Iran, horse’s remains were discovered and dated to 3400 BC [Caspian Horse Society 2018Caspian Horse Society (2018). Caspian Horse Society. http://www.caspianhorsesociety.org.uk [access 15 May 2018]. Google Scholar]. Scientists identified the skeleton as identical with a skeleton of the extant Caspian horse. It may conducts that the first domesticated horses on the Middle East were directly ancestors of Caspian horses and Median horses did not extinct, as already considered decades ago. Hence a supposition that this small oriental horse is the Arabian horse’s ancestor – a very important breed in the world breeding [Nazifi et al. 2005Nazifi, S., Saeb, M., Rategh, S., Khojandi, A. (2005). Serum lipids and lipoproteins in clinically healthy Caspian miniature horses. Veter. Arch., 75(2), 175–182. Google Scholar, Hendricks 2007Hendricks, B.L. (2007). International Encyclopedia of Horse Breeds. University of Oklahoma Press, United States of America. Google Scholar, Hosseini et al. 2016Hosseini, M., Shahrbabak, H.M., Zandi, M.B., Fallahi, M.H. (2016). A Morphometric Survey among Three Iranian Horse Breeds with Multivariate Analysis. Media Peternakan, 39(3), 155–160. https://doi.org/10.5398/medpet.2016.39.3.155]. With the Muslim conquest of Persia, the famous royal horses disappeared and the world forgot about theirs existence [Amirinia et al. 2007Amirinia, C., Seyedabadi, H., Banabazi, M.H., Kamali, M.A. (2007). Bottleneck Study and Genetic Structure of Iranian Caspian Horse Population Using Microsatellites. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10(9), 1540–1543. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.1540.1543]. The horse was rediscovered by the American woman Louies Firouz in the 1950s by Caspian Sea south shores, in Elbrus Mountains [Firouz and Dalton 2013Firouz, L., Dalton, B. (2013). Riding Through Revolution. Advanced Global Publishing, United States of America. Google Scholar]. Then have been noted some breed characters, which distinguished this small horses and they was consider as a separate breed. They were called “Caspian” horses.

Atavistic features, including additional molar teeth, well develops inter-parietal bone instead of parietal crest in the skull, hooves characteristic rather for donkeys, not horses, etc.; indicate ancient origination of Caspians [Firouz 1978Firouz, L. (1978). The Caspian Miniature Horse of Iran. Inter. Caspian Stud Book, II, 11–16. Google Scholar]. A research also displays differences: genetic (65 chromosomes, domestic horse has 64 chromosomes), physiological (eg. different hemoglobin and protein proportions, different ovary’s activity in mares) and anatomical differences (differences in skeletal structure and heart’s topography, lack of a cartilage in a tongue) compare to the horses other breeds [Bowling 1996Bowling, A.T. (1996). Horse Genetics. CAB International, Great Britain. Google Scholar, Shirazi et al. 2004Shirazi, A., Gharagozloo, F., Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H. (2004). Ultrasonic characteristics of preovulatory follicle and ovulation in Caspian mares. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 80(3/4), 261–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.07.005, Nazifi and Rategh 2005Nazifi, S., Rategh, S. (2005). Haemoglobin types and blood concentrations of haemoglobin, copper, ceruloplasmin and iron in adult Caspian miniature horses. Rev. Méd. Vétér., 156(1), 50–52. Google Scholar, Rezaian 2006Rezaian, M. (2006). Absence of Hyaline Cartilage in the Tongue of ''Caspian Miniature Horse''. Anat. Histol. Embryol., 35(4), 241–246. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2005.00673.x, Paryani and Gilanpour 2009aParyani, M.R., Gilanpour, H. (2009a). The heart and its valves in the Caspian miniature horse: a topographic study. Folia Morphol., 68(1), 36–39. Google Scholar, Paryani and Gilanpour 2009bParyani, M.R., Gilanpour, H. (2009b). Topographical study of the brachiocephalic trunk in Caspian miniature horse. J. Vet. Res., 64(4), 333–337. Google Scholar, Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi et al. 2010Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, M., Atyabi, N., Borojeni, N.B., Mohamadi, A.M. (2010). Concentrations of the immunoglobin isotypes in the Caspian miniature horse: first report. Rev. Méd. Vétér., 16(12), 580–583. Google Scholar, Atyabi et al. 2012Atyabi, N., Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, M., Khosravi, M., Javanbakht, J., Dilmaghanian, I. (2012). Detection of cryoglobulins in serum of Caspian miniature horse. Arch. Razi Inst., 67(1), 51–55. Google Scholar]. Thanks to the imports from Iran Caspian horses are maintained also in Europe, North America and Australia. According to the data, the population has never exceeded 1,500 individuals in the world [Rousseau 2017Rousseau, E. (2017). Horses of the World. Princeton University Press, Great Britain. Google Scholar, Caspian Horse Society 2018Caspian Horse Society (2018). Caspian Horse Society. http://www.caspianhorsesociety.org.uk [access 15 May 2018]. Google Scholar]. Due to breakdown of the breed into many counties, in each of them the breed has status of critically endangered [Equine Survival Trust 2018Equine Survival Trust (2018). Equine Conservation List. http://www.equus-survival-trust.org/documents/equineconservationlist.pdf [access 28 December 2018]. Google Scholar]. The Caspian Horse Society is an organization coordinating Caspian horses breeding. Caspian horses, despite of their appealing features and many breeding regions, are still unpopular in Europe and in Poland almost unknown. The aim of this study was overall characterization of Caspian horses breed and confronting information about them from literature with Caspian breeder’s opinions.


Fig. 1. Caspian mare Dra Zolal, Germany (phot. K. Bańka)

Rys. 1. Klacz kaspijska Dra Zolal, Niemcy (fot. K. Bańka)

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The quantity of the currently population was assess base on the Caspian Horse International Census [CHIC 2017CHIC (2017). Caspian Horse International Census. http://www.endangeredequines.com/chic/chicherdbook.html [access 7 September 2018]. Google Scholar] analysis updated in 2017 and Caspian Stud Book (January 2017). However, due to lack of reliable registry of horses’ death, numbers from these lists are overstated. To assess actual number of living individuals of the breed assumed, that the horse live average 20 years, then counted all horses born after 1998.

To include in the study the biggest amount of horses as possible prepared an on-line survey directed to a Caspian horses’ breeders and owners. The survey contained 25 overall questions (part 1) concern breed characteristic and seven detailed questions (part 2), in which asked about characteristic of the particular herds (e.g. age, sex, colour, usage). By Internet was found contact to the 41 facilities maintaining Caspian horses in any place of the world. Response on the survey obtain from 18 facilities from Europe (13, in it nine from UK) and USA (4) (question 1, one responder not specified localization). Responders were characterized 120 Caspian horses in total, what states approx. 10% worldwide population. Sending the survey allowed on made a mail contact with breeders and obtained extra information not include in the form.

Observations were also conduct in one of the facilities (Stichill Stables in Scotland, owner Anna Bergmann). Three horses (pure blood Caspian and crossbreeds) were present in jumping, work in hand and free movement.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Breeding of Caspian horses is leading in 17 counties of the world, mainly in United States of America, United Kingdom, Iran and Australia (in total 83.48% of worldwide population). In 1965–2000 to the breeding had include 111 original Caspian horses, so called Foundation Horses – 72 mares and 39 stallions, coming from Iran. Till now in the Caspian Horse International Census registered 2160 horses: 1144 mares, 934 stallions and 82 geldings, and currently population reaches 1788 horses: 930 mares (52%), 781 stallions (44%) and 77 geldings (4%) [CHIC 2017CHIC (2017). Caspian Horse International Census. http://www.endangeredequines.com/chic/chicherdbook.html [access 7 September 2018]. Google Scholar]. In Caspian Stud Book since 1978 until 2017, input approximately 2100 horses [International Caspian Society 2018International Caspian Society (2018). Stud Book. International Caspian Society. https://www.caspianhorses.org/studbook [access 15 May 2018]. Google Scholar]. From the authors’ assessment, derive that currently living population actually reaches approx. 1000 purebred Caspians. Similar state has V. Tollman, a member of CHIC, who is assessing that in the USA live about 450 Caspian horses, in Australia – up to 150, in UK – up to 400 and in Canada – maximally 150. That gives 1150 Caspian horses in total, that mean over 600 less than in the registry. There are about 500 Caspian horses in Europe. Even lack of data about stallions’ castration overstate theirs number in the statistics.

The history of the Caspian horse’s breed gives reason to believe that by this population’s quantity, avoid foreign genes addition, and inbreeding depression too, is possible. Thanks to further carefully breeding and genetic material exchanging between the countries, and the best between a continents, there is a chance to maintain healthy genetic diversity of the breed. In analyzed population about 50% of individuals can be active in breeding (age and way of usage factors). Reproductive potential of the Caspian horse breed states approx. 500 mares in the world. However, number of mares actually using in breeding can be significantly lower, what prove the survey results (part 2. question 5. – q.2.5.). From among 66 mares only 39 (59%) is using in breeding. Quite big part of population state stallions (studied population – 37%, q.2.1), what is the result of breeding policy. It assumes that small defects do not disqualify the stallion as a sire, but determining should be utility value. From the survey, derive that studied population of Caspian horses is ageing population (q.2.2) (Fig. 2), however during last ten years the popularity of the breed has increased (q.1.4). Maybe it is cause by free information and products flow nowadays, so it creates auspicious prognosis for the breed’s future.


Fig. 2. Number of Caspian horses by age group

Rys. 2. Liczebność koni kaspijskich w poszczególnych gru­pach wiekowych

A relationship in a particular breeders’ herds (q.1.12) has normal level (Table 1) and most breeders (68.75%) never observed inbreeding depression’s symptoms (q.1.13), what coincides with research conducted by Seyedabadi and Sofla [2018]Seyedabadi, H.R., Sofla, S.S. (2018). Genetic Characterization and Bottleneck Demographic Assessment of Caspian Horse Population. J. Vet., 19(3), 305–312. Google Scholar. A rest of breeders (31.25%) mentions predispositions to: Equine Metabolic Syndrome (and connected predisposition to laminitis), sarcoids, smaller size of body and sweet itch. However, from enumerate dysfunctions only smaller body size (one response) belongs to symptoms of the inbreeding depression. Remaining disorders a far less degree depend on genes, but rather are causing by maintaining conditions and individual features not racial features. Caspian horses have high genetic diversity in spite of small gene pool, what can be clarify, excluding bottleneck effect, by fact that all breeds derived from first domestication’s regions possess the highest heterozygosity coefficient among animal breeds [Warmuth et al. 2011Warmuth, V., Eriksson, A., Bower, M.A., Canon, J., Cothran, G., Distl, O., Glowatzki-Mullis, M.L., Hunt, H., Luis, C., Mar Oom, M., Yupanqui, I.T., Ząbek T., Manica A. (2011). European Domesticn Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia. PLoS ONE, 6(3), e.18194. https://doi.org/10.1371/annotation/ef679268-70cb-49f8-8e1b-2c9df4ed1930].

Table 1. Selected questions about subjective score of Caspian horse breed features in 1–5 scale (in bracket number of survey question)
Tabela 1. Wybrane pytania o subiektywną ocenę cech rasy koni kaspijskiej w skali od 1 do 5 (w nawiasie podano numer pytania w ankiecie)

Question (no.)
Pytanie ankietowe (nr)

Value 1 – Wartość 1

Value 5 – Wartość 5

Mean value
Średnia ocen

SD

Adaptation abilities (9)
Zdolności adaptacyjne (9)

low
słabe

high
duże

4.35

±0.70

Health status (11)
Zdrowotność (11)

weak
chorowite

strong
odporne

4.41

±0.71

Level of herd’s inbreeding/*nine herds (12)
Pokrewieństwo stada/*dziewięciu stad (12)

small
małe

large
duże

3.23/*3.44

±1.30/*±1.23

Conformation correctness (14)
Poprawność pokroju (14)

incorrect
wiele wad

correct conformation
poprawny pokrój

4.47

±0.62

Suitability for sport (19)
Przydatność do sportu (19)

unsuitable nieprzydatne

suitable
bardzo przydatne

4.76

±0.56

* The question was answered by 14 owners. However, only 9 of them possessed the number of horses enough to be called a herd, that is enough for inbreeding evaluation (minimum 4 horses).
* Na pytanie odpowiedziało 14 właścicieli. Jednak tylko 9 spośród nich posiada liczbę koni wystarczającą do nazwania ich stadem, a zatem do oceny pokrewieństwa (minimum 4 konie).

The responders are in 72.2% breeders, 16.7% users and 11.1% amateurs of Caspian horses (q.1.2). Motives of Caspian horses choosing instead other breeds (q.1.5) were overall the breed appeal (extraordinary history, oriental and elegant appearance, rarity, saving the breed from extinction) (11 resp.), Caspians sport skills (6), children’s mount need (5), good temper and intelligence (3) and good health (2). Currently only 11.1% of the responders possess only Caspian horses (q.1.6). The rest, maintain simultaneously horses other breeds (21% oriental horses, 8.7% cold-blood horses, 47.82% ponies or small horses). A crossbreeding with Caspian horses by 31.25% responders was conducted, the rest (68.75%) have never done it (q.1.7). Main goal of the crossing is obtain taller ponies, what extends group of half-bred Caspians’ potential riders. Remains aims were obtain a mount with more mild temper (compare to purebred Caspian), better conformation and proportions of horse instead pony, or improve other breeds with ancient origination (e.g. Skyros pony). The Caspian horse passes on offspring a conformation’s features (q.1.8) like beautiful head, long neck, thin legs, good tissues quality and hard hooves, “beauty and quality”, or in Polish hippological nomenclature “nobleness”. Above it the offspring inherits: sporting abilities (19.2% responds), particularly jumping and so called “heart to jumping”; spectacular movement, balance, endurance and good health, good temperament (19.2%), curiosity and kindness, willing and “enthusiasm” in work with a man (15.4%). Answers on that question confirm, the Caspian horse breed as an ancient, well-established long time ago and close related with nobility Arabian horses, has ability to faithfully passing on offspring its profitable characteristics. It seems to improving a horse breeds by Caspians, is the same as ameliorating by Arabian horse, but in miniature.

Responders keep theirs horses in combined (stable and pasture) (66.7%) and grass-kept systems (33.3%) (q.1.10). The Caspians are adapted to harsh conditions, so can be successfully kept outdoors, what has positive influence on their condition. Caspian horses quite well with changes and adapt to new circumstances (q.1.9) (Table 1). They characterize by generally good health and strong immunity (q.1.11) (Table 1) and very well conformation (q.1.14) (Table 1). Two owners (11.1%) are shoeing their Caspian horses (q.1.20), because their type of work demand it, the others (88.9%) are never shoeing their horses. Nobody ticks a respond that the horse demands shoeing due to hooves condition. Observed that Caspians’ hooves are high, slope and have very high heels (it is not drawback, but racial characteristic). It is possible that other growing tempo, proportion and angles of the hooves, can be cause of different worn off tempo of hoof wall in this breed compared to others. On average trimming horses is necessary 6–8 times a year, while in Caspians it can be doing 1–3 times a year or more often depending on the horse’s hooves condition [Ghavi Hossein-Zadeha and Ghorbani 2018Ghavi Hossein-Zadeha, N., Ghorbani, A. (2018). Modeling the growth curves for body weight and some biometric traits in Caspian horses (Equus ferus caballus) using non-linear mixed models. Mamm. Biol., 93, 5–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2018.07.004]. Undoubtedly, great influence in this matter has horse-keeping system. Free access to a pastures and varied ground (especially dry and hard) allows for optimal hoof wall worn off and keeping good condition of hooves.

According to 92.3% responders, Caspian horses have any problems with reproduction (q.1.15). One of thirteen persons ticks, that in a mare occurs heat cycle issues (7.7%). The number of studied horses is too small to assess mares’ maternal instinct, but on rise of outcomes can be consider Caspian mares do not diverge from other breeds statistics (q.1.16, 1.17). One per fourteen persons (7.1%) responds, that happened a foal rejection by a dam.

Caspian horses are the most frequently used under saddle (q.1.18) only by children (76.5%), in 17.6% by adults and children and 5.9% by adults. In spite of their small size, it is possible thanks to strength and capacity appropriate to a mountain and primordial horses. The vast majority of responders (82.4%) considered the Caspian horse’ breed very suitable to a sport (q.1.19) (Table 1), what suggest the breed is definitely in sport pony type. The result confirm information from literature, which say that distinguishing features of the breed are jumping, excellent movement and easy in cooperation [Morris and Langrish 2008Morris, A., Langrish, B. (2008). Portret konia [Portait of a horse]. Firma Księgarska Olesiejuk, Warszawa [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Swinney and Langrish 2012Swinney, N.J., Langrish, B. (2012). Piękno konia [The beauty of the horse]. Firma Księgarska Olesiejuk, Ożarów Mazowiecki [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. Caspian horses are characterized by brilliant balance in movement, their anatomical conformation allows on extraordinary for their size a stride elongation. From among surveyed 88.9% answered that the horses do not make problems when handling or under the saddle (q.1.21), and 11.1% that they do. In horses in 67% facilities, there are no vices (q.1.22). The remaining indicated cribbing, bucking under saddle, kicking and biting among a stallions or chewing on wood. Both questions concerned welfare of animals and behavioral problems, which depend from many factors. However, can be assuming studied population does not diverge in behavior from other breeds. One of the surveyed indicates that under this circumstance Caspian horses are particularly demanding due to their high intelligence. As animals curious from nature, are getting bored very fast and in the case lack of proper stimulation, can quicker and easier “be by a vice affected” compared to other breeds.

Asked if Caspian horses are distinguishing in positive way among other horses breeds and how, if yes (q.1.23). In 94% obtain positive opinions, indicates on sensibility, unique temper, good health, immunity, extraordinary willing to work, endure and easy training thanks to high intelligence. Driving predisposition allows on using these horses also by adults. However, the main role Caspians play as a children’s sport mounts. According to surveyed Caspians are superior to “round, short-legged” ponies, because their proportions and movement are mapping large horses’ features in miniature and make them better adjusted to the youngest riders. Caspian horses reveal lot of willingness to make a relation with a man. The breed can attracts new breeders according to 41.2% of surveyed (q.1.24), according to 5.9% will not be appealing and 52.9% can not prognosis it. Among responders, fifteen have membership to breeding societies (q.1.25). European breeders (64.71%, nine resp.) are affiliated in Caspian Horse Society (CHS), above it two of them belong to other national organizations (Sweden, France). Breeders from USA belong to: The North American Caspian Society (NACS) (1) and The Caspian Horse Society of the Americas (CHSA) (1). The sixth organization is a service registering the horses – Caspian Registry Services (CRS) (2).

Between 120 horses belonging to responders are 66 mares (55%), 44 stallions (36.7%) and 10 geldings (8.3%) (q.2.1). The most horses (35.83%) was at the age 10–20 years, least (5%) foals up to one year (q.2.2). Remaining age categories was: 1–3 year – 14,16%, 4–6 year – 12,5%, 6–10 year – 20.83%, 20 and more years – 10%. The graph clearly indicates on unfavorable phenomenon “ageing population” (Fig. 1). Caspian horses are very lively, happens they live up to 30 years (in 2019 Caspian mare Contessa Siyroun celebrated its 37th birthday) [Hendricks, 2007]. They also keep reproducing ability, even up to twenty several years. A structure of analyzed population in term of the colour (q.2.3) was: horses bay – 53%, chestnut – 16.5%, grey – 14.8%, black – 8.7% and dun – 3.5%. There was mentioned colours as roan (2.6%) and buckskin (0.9%) too. However till now in Caspians did not identified nor Rn roan gene nor Cr cremello gene conditioning buckskin colour [Hendricks 2007Hendricks, B.L. (2007). International Encyclopedia of Horse Breeds. University of Oklahoma Press, United States of America. Google Scholar]. Probably it was wrongly identified bay or dun colour, what is not easy without a gene test. Above it, in Caspian’s population had found genes conditioning colours traits like rabicano, sabino–1, pangare, flaxen and sooty. Opalescent shimmer of coat is more frequent in stallions than mares. Gene D (characteristic for primordial horse breeds) in Caspians occurs often with chestnut genes as a red dun colour. Majority of the population has a dorsal stripe. It is connected with dun gene variant “nd–1 – non diluted 1”, which gives phenotype without dun dilution, but often with primitive signs like the dorsal stripe or stripes on limbs [Veterinary Genetics Laboratory 2018Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (2018). UC Davis Veterinary Medicine, Dun Dilution – Direct Test. http://www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/services/dunhorse.php [access 29 October 2018]. Google Scholar].

The studied horses have average high 118 cm (q.2.4). The most horses (48.84%) are in category 110–120 cm, and just under 10% counts at the withers less than 110 cm. The value is very close to mean provides by Breed Standard, this is 117 cm [ICSB, 2018]. In studied group of horses 50% are using in a breeding, 17.5% in recreation (q.2.5). A forms of sport usage of Caspians are jumping – 13.3%, dressage – 12%, driving – 7.5%, pony games – 6.7% and endurance – 1.2%. Among other forms of using (2.5%) were mentioned Eagala (psychological therapy with horses participation), flat and trotter racing and polo game. The each horse was evaluated in terms of temper (q.2.6). A survey studies about horse psychology are subjective and irrational (e.g. in comparison to behavioral tests). However, surveyed circled suggested traits in total 220 times, what gives relatively reliable statistical portrait. Caspian horses are: willing to work – 35.45%, calm – 22.72%, brave – 21.81%, vigorous – 15%, hyperactive – 2.27%, skittish – 1.81%, unwilling to work – 1.36%, lazy – 0.45%. The owners are generally evaluated their Caspian horses’ temper very positive (Fig. 3).


Fig. 3. Evaluation of Caspian horses’ character traits

Rys. 3. Ocena cech charakteru koni kaspijskich

CONCLUSIONS

The survey results confirm and supply information about the Caspian horse breed available in the literature. The breed is characterize by many appealing features of exterior and interior and has great utility values. Caspian stallions are very useful in improving other breeds, and could be as important in small horses breeding, as Arabian and Thoroughbred horses in sport horse breeding. Thereby we can suppose that using of Caspian stallions could bring great profits in refining of a Polish sport pony’s population. The Polish ponies would purchase light, elegance shape of a sport horse, better movement and jumping abilities, simultaneously maintain strong immune of primordial animal. Those improved by Caspians blood, would have bigger chance of compete with west breeds of sport ponies and the youngest riders would have better access to the high quality mounts. This factor seems to be one of the crucial for equestrian development in Poland.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Source of financing: Subsidy for the UPB, task A, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, no. 503–01–086–11/4.

REFERENCES

  1. Amirinia, C., Seyedabadi, H., Banabazi, M.H., Kamali, M.A. (2007).
    Bottleneck Study and Genetic Structure of Iranian Caspian Horse Population Using Microsatellites.
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10(9), 1540–1543.
    https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.1540.1543
  2. Atyabi, N., Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, M., Khosravi, M., Javanbakht, J., Dilmaghanian, I. (2012).
    Detection of cryoglobulins in serum of Caspian miniature horse.
    Arch. Razi Inst., 67(1), 51–55.
    Google Scholar
  3. Bowling, A.T. (1996).
    Horse Genetics.
    CAB International, Great Britain.
    Google Scholar
  4. CHIC (2017).
    Caspian Horse International Census.
    http://www.endangeredequines.com/chic/chicherdbook.html [access 7 September 2018].
    Google Scholar
  5. Caspian Horse Society (2018).
    Caspian Horse Society.
    http://www.caspianhorsesociety.org.uk [access 15 May 2018].
    Google Scholar
  6. Equine Survival Trust (2018).
    Equine Conservation List.
    http://www.equus-survival-trust.org/documents/equineconservationlist.pdf [access 28 December 2018].
    Google Scholar
  7. Firouz, L. (1978).
    The Caspian Miniature Horse of Iran.
    Inter. Caspian Stud Book, II, 11–16.
    Google Scholar
  8. Firouz, L., Dalton, B. (2013).
    Riding Through Revolution.
    Advanced Global Publishing, United States of America.
    Google Scholar
  9. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeha, N., Ghorbani, A. (2018).
    Modeling the growth curves for body weight and some biometric traits in Caspian horses (Equus ferus caballus) using non-linear mixed models.
    Mamm. Biol., 93, 5–12.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2018.07.004
  10. Harrison, L. (2000).
    Les chevaux dans l'art, la photographie et la littérature.
    Evergreen, Kolonia.
    Google Scholar
  11. Hendricks, B.L. (2007).
    International Encyclopedia of Horse Breeds.
    University of Oklahoma Press, United States of America.
    Google Scholar
  12. Hosseini, M., Shahrbabak, H.M., Zandi, M.B., Fallahi, M.H. (2016).
    A Morphometric Survey among Three Iranian Horse Breeds with Multivariate Analysis.
    Media Peternakan, 39(3), 155–160.
    https://doi.org/10.5398/medpet.2016.39.3.155
  13. International Caspian Society (2018).
    Stud Book.
    International Caspian Society. https://www.caspianhorses.org/studbook [access 15 May 2018].
    Google Scholar
  14. MacDonald, M.C.A. (2009).
    Wheels in a land of camels: another look at the chariot in Arabia.
    Arab. Archeol. Epigraph., 20, 156–184.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0471.2009.00312.x
  15. Morris, A., Langrish, B. (2008).
    Portret konia [Portait of a horse].
    Firma Księgarska Olesiejuk, Warszawa [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  16. Nazifi, S., Rategh, S. (2005).
    Haemoglobin types and blood concentrations of haemoglobin, copper, ceruloplasmin and iron in adult Caspian miniature horses.
    Rev. Méd. Vétér., 156(1), 50–52.
    Google Scholar
  17. Nazifi, S., Saeb, M., Rategh, S., Khojandi, A. (2005).
    Serum lipids and lipoproteins in clinically healthy Caspian miniature horses.
    Veter. Arch., 75(2), 175–182.
    Google Scholar
  18. Paryani, M.R., Gilanpour, H. (2009a).
    The heart and its valves in the Caspian miniature horse: a topographic study.
    Folia Morphol., 68(1), 36–39.
    Google Scholar
  19. Paryani, M.R., Gilanpour, H. (2009b).
    Topographical study of the brachiocephalic trunk in Caspian miniature horse.
    J. Vet. Res., 64(4), 333–337.
    Google Scholar
  20. Rezaian, M. (2006).
    Absence of Hyaline Cartilage in the Tongue of ''Caspian Miniature Horse''.
    Anat. Histol. Embryol., 35(4), 241–246.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.2005.00673.x
  21. Rousseau, E. (2017).
    Horses of the World.
    Princeton University Press, Great Britain.
    Google Scholar
  22. Seyedabadi, H.R., Sofla, S.S. (2018).
    Genetic Characterization and Bottleneck Demographic Assessment of Caspian Horse Population.
    J. Vet., 19(3), 305–312.
    Google Scholar
  23. Shirazi, A., Gharagozloo, F., Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H. (2004).
    Ultrasonic characteristics of preovulatory follicle and ovulation in Caspian mares.
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 80(3/4), 261–266.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.07.005
  24. Swinney, N.J., Langrish, B. (2012).
    Piękno konia [The beauty of the horse].
    Firma Księgarska Olesiejuk, Ożarów Mazowiecki [in Polish].
    Google Scholar
  25. Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (2018).
    UC Davis Veterinary Medicine, Dun Dilution – Direct Test.
    http://www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/services/dunhorse.php [access 29 October 2018].
    Google Scholar
  26. Warmuth, V., Eriksson, A., Bower, M.A., Canon, J., Cothran, G., Distl, O., Glowatzki-Mullis, M.L., Hunt, H., Luis, C., Mar Oom, M., Yupanqui, I.T., Ząbek T., Manica A. (2011).
    European Domesticn Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia.
    PLoS ONE, 6(3), e.18194.
    https://doi.org/10.1371/annotation/ef679268-70cb-49f8-8e1b-2c9df4ed1930
  27. Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, M., Atyabi, N., Borojeni, N.B., Mohamadi, A.M. (2010).
    Concentrations of the immunoglobin isotypes in the Caspian miniature horse: first report.
    Rev. Méd. Vétér., 16(12), 580–583.
    Google Scholar
 

 

This Article

Received: 23 Mar 2020

Accepted: 5 Sep 2020

Published online: 29 Oct 2020

Accesses: 202

How to cite

Pluta, M., Bańka, K., Cieśla, A., Rogala, ., (2020). The state of breeding and use of Caspian horses in Europe and around the world. Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 19(3), 79–84. DOI: 10.21005/asp.2020.19.3.10.