Krzysztof Tereszkiewicz, Karolina Choroszy, Piotr Tereszkiewicz
Abstract. The following paper aims to analyze the arguments presented by the supporters and opponents in the discussion concerning moral and legal aspects of ritual slaughter in Poland and to delineate a possible area of compromise. In the ongoing debate concerning ritual slaughter, three main positions can be distinguished: defenders of animal rights, demanding a prohibition of the slaughter due to its non-humanitarian nature, meat producers pointing out economic losses resulting from the prohibition, and religious minorities, according to whom this prohibition violates the laws guaranteed by the Constitution and deprives them of this vital element deciding about their cultural identity. From a theologically-moral perspective, an optimal solution of this problem in Poland should involve a gradual introduction of restrictions concerning the performance of ritual slaughter on an industrial scale with a simultaneous guarantee given to the religious communities to obtain meat for their own use in line with their tradition. If ritual slaughter on an industrial scale was maintained, it would be necessary to introduce fundamental changes in the regulations of the performance of this act with the aim of improving the welfare of the animals.
Grażyna Michalska, Jerzy Nowachowicz, Tomasz Bucek, Przemysław Dariusz Wasilewski, Małgorzata Kmiecik
Abstract. The aim of presented paper was to analyse the results of performance test of crossbred gilts of Polish Large White and Polish Landrace breed conducted in years 2009–2013 in the Bydgoszcz Breeding Region. They came from two crossing variants (sows breed at first position): [PLW × PL] and [PL × PLW]. Crossbred gilts [PL × PLW] in all analysed years (except for 2001) had higher daily gain of body weight standardised on 180th day than [PLW × PL] animals. From 2009 till 2013 the growth rate of tested crossbred gilts, i.e. [PLW × PL] and [PL × PLW] increased by 10 and 8 g, respectively. Within the space of 5 tested years (2009–2013) an improvement of breeding value of animals determined as selection index value, which increased by 7 points in [PLW × PL] gilts and by 4 points in [PL × PLW] pigs. This proves the effective improvement of growth and slaughter performance of crossbred gilts came from The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region within the space of years 2009–2013, being maternal component used in breeding and commercial crossing, which should be monitored in following years.
Anna Konieczka, Anna Nienartowicz-Zdrojewska, Janusz Buczyński, Zbigniew Sobek, Jolanta Różańska-Zawieja
Abstract. Experimental material comprised 47 Złotnicka Spotted sows, coming from 2 piggeries keeping Złotnicka pigs within conservative breeding. Slaughter performance was evaluated on carcasses coming from their offspring (112 carcasses – Złotnicka Spotted x Duroc) and 16 carcasses coming from purebred animals. The following reproduction performance traits of sows were investigated: the number of piglets born in the litter and the number of piglets reared 21st day, and the following slaughter performance traits of their offspring were analyzed: weight of caracass (kg), mean backfat thickness (mm), height of loin eye of the longissimus dorsi muscle (mm) and meat percentage in the carcass (%). The most numerous litters, both at day 1 (10.16 head) and on 21st day of life (9.99 head), were those sired by Duroc boars. Recorded differences turned out to be statistically high significant. The breed of the sire also had a significantly high effect on meatiness of fatteners.
Abstract. Increasing zinc and copper concentration in diet is accompanied with increasing of their content in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues, namely in skeletal muscles. Correspondingly, concentration of anionic forms of fatty acids in the skeletal muscles is also increasing. Total content of non-esterified fatty acids tends to increase in the skeletal muscles of carp at copper and zinc concentration in mixed fodder 8 and 100 mg/kg respectively, while at 16 and 200 mg/kg of copper and zinc respectively, it is decreasing. Increasing of copper and zinc concentration in the diet of carps is accompanied by increasing of level of fatty acids of total lipids in their skeletal muscles. Simultaneously, in total lipids of the skeletal muscles of carp, ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family to ω-6 family is increasing. Wherein in total lipids of the skeletal muscles of carp, efficiency of linolic and linolenic acids transformation to their more long-chain and more unsaturated derivatives is growing; concurrently intensity of transformation of myristinic, palmitinic, stearinic and arachinic acids of total lipids to their corresponding monounsaturated derivatives is increasing. During the period of investigations, carp of trial groups had higher wieght gains in comparison to carp of control group.
Abstract. The purpose of this research was the comparison of 64-week-old cockerels and the Ross 308 broiler breeder hens in terms of their weight and the carcass composition, the physiochemical and sensory properties of the breast and leg muscles. Twenty males and twenty females of broiler breeder hens after the reproductive cycle were included in the research. The males of broiler breeder hens were characterized by a significantly higher carcass weight, higher percentage content of neck, wings (P ≤ 0.01) and leg muscles (P ≤ 0.05) in the carcass and significantly less fatness (P ≤ 0.01) in comparison to the assessed females. The evaluation of the meat quality included the pH measurement and electrical conductivity after 24 hours from slaughter, determination of natural and thermal leakage, determination of colour parameters (L*, a*, b*) and the sensory evaluation of cooked meat. The breast muscles of males were significantly more likely to have a thermal leakage (P ≤ 0.05), while leg muscles were characterized by darker colour and less saturation in the yellow direction (P ≤ 0.01). The meat from breast muscles of females from broiler breeder hens had a more definite and desirable aroma and tastiness (P ≤ 0.01).