Abstract. It is established that there is a certain correlation between the level of carotenoids in the ration of breeding hens during the reproductive period and the content of unsaturated fatty acids in lipids of egg yolks. The increased content of carotenoids in the diet of chickens during the reproductive period from 8 to 32 mg per kg of fodder contributed to the reduction of content of saturated fatty acids in egg yolks and increased of the content of unsaturated fatty acids in comparison with the control group. It was found increased content of polyunsaturated fatty acids: linoleic (C18:2ω-6), docosapentaenoic (C22:5ω-3), docosahexaenoic (C22:6ω-3), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5ω-3) and eicosatrienoic (C20:3ω-9). The inverse relationship between the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the lipid composition of egg yolks and the intensity index of lipid metabolism in the liver of 19-day-embryos was observed.
Teresa Banaszkiewicz, Stanisław Laskowski, Anna Milczarek
Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluation of introduction of covered or hulless barley instead of part of wheat on rearing performance, digestibility of diets and the slaughter results of broiler chickens. The experiment (growth trial) was carried out on 126 Hubbard Flex chickens which were divided into 3 groups of 42 birds per group (7 replications with 6 chickens, 3 ♀ and 3 ♂ ). The control group (K) fed of wheat- soybean diet, whereas in the experimental diets a part of the wheat was replaced by 20% of covered barley (JO) or 20% of hulless barley (JNO). At the 42 days of age, 24 birds (4 ♀ and 4 ♂ from each group) were slaughtered and designed for slaughter analysis and partial dissection. The digestibility trial was carried out on 18 day old broilers. The digestibility coefficients of basal nutrients of diets fed in starter period were determination by total collection method. The chickens fed a diet containing covered barley characterized greater of body weight at 21 day (P ≤ 0.05) and better body weight gain in the starter period (1 to 21 days ), than received diet with hulless barley. In the grower period, the body weight and body weight gain in groups become even. Similarly results obtained also for whole fattening period. The feed efficiency in each period of rearing of chickens was similarly. The dry matter and N-free-extractives the chickens digested significantly better (P ≤ 0.05) from diet containing hulless barley, however the crude protein and crude fat from control diet. There were no significant differences between the groups in the digestibility of crude ash and phosphorus. The introduction of 20% hulless barley to the diet significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decrease slaughter yield, however increase the share of skin with subcutaneous fat in the carcass, in relation to the chickens fed diet containing covered barley. The use of 20% of both barley (covered and hulless) has not significantly effect on musculature of chickens. Fatty acid composition of lipid fraction of breast muscle was similar in groups except of mirystooleic and behenic acid, which were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in breast muscle of chickens fed with diet containing 20% hulless barley. The better palatability characterized breast muscle of chickens fed diet containing hulless barley. On the body weight, body weight gain, slaughter yield and fatness account of chickens, the better profitable was covered barley , whereas on the quality of meat was hulless barley.
Abstract. Analyses were performed based on records from the SYMLEK database. Data on milk performance of 20 068 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows were accounted for. Productive and functional traits were analysed alongside culling reasons. The cows first calved at an average age of 807 days and primiparous milk yield averaged 6513 kg. The lifespan of cows ranged from 1830 to 3156 days depending on reasons for culling. Cows removed from the herd for old age had the longest lifespan, whereas the least productive animals sold for further breeding had the shortest lifespan. Cows with the longest productive life had an average lifetime yield of 40 000 kg milk. The coefficients of correlation between primiparous milk production and lifespan ranged from 0.30 (cows culled for old age, low milk production, and culled for sale) to 0.08 (cows culled for other reasons). The analysed population was characterized by high positive coefficients of correlation between first lactation yield and lifetime yield (0.34–0.64). In all the classes of cows accounting for culling reasons, positive correlations were estimated between primiparous milk yield and milk production per day of age and day of productive life.
Adam Roman, Paweł Migdał, Ewa Popiela-Pleban, Anastazja Bożemska
Abstract. The study compared different food substrates in queen cells on the effectiveness of their rearing. Experiments were carried out during the nectar flow in 2013 year in a breeding apiary. Larvae were grafted on the following substrates: fresh royal jelly diluted with demineralized water at a 1: 1ratio (CON), royal jelly with the addition of vitamins A and E (VIT), freeze-dried royal jelly diluted with deionized water (LIOF) and royal jelly with the addition of ApiBioFarma probiotic (PROB). In the preliminary study (EXP1), 36 bee queens were obtained from 144 larvae, whereas 150 ones were obtained from 288 larvae in the proper study(EXP2). Larvae grafted on fresh diluted royal jelly were accepted the most by bees in colonies. In this group; the large number of obtained queens was observed in both parts of the study. In the case of the body mass, statistically significant differences were observed between groups CON and PROB.
Ryszard Pikuła, Wilhelm Grzesiak, Daniel Zaborski, Wioletta Werkowska
Abstract. The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the inbreeding level of the Holstein stallions presented for classification for breeding in 2003–2012 in Germany. The data were collected from the Holsteiner Korung und Reitepferde – Auktion catalogues. Based on the analysis of 869 pedigrees (up to the fifth generation inclusive), inbreeding coefficients (F), expressed as a percentage for each stallion, were calculated. The highest F values were recorded in 2003 (2.05%) and 2004 (1.74%). Statistically significant differences in the F values of the stallions from individual years were found. The outcomes of the present study show that the breeding work based on conscious assumptions is carried out in order to increase an inbreeding level in the sport horses’ production, regarding at the same time that the value of the inbreeding coefficient cannot be too high.