Abstract. The aim of the present study was to identify and assess the determinants of the content of Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cd, and Pb in longissimus lumborum (LL) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles of fallow deer and red deer reared in the organic system. The concentrations of 6 elements (Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cd, Pb) in fallow deer and red deer meat produced in the organic system in Poland were analyzed with the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The animals, i.e. 12 ca. 2- and 3-year-old fallow deer (Dama dama) and 12 ca. 3- and 4-year-old red deer (Cervus elaphus), were culled during the autumn season. Both groups of animals comprised 6 males and 6 females. A significant effect of the species on the content of selected minerals in the meat was noted. It was found that the LL muscle from the fallow deer was a rich source of Ca, Mg, and Zn, and the meat from the red deer had high amounts of Zn and Fe. The age of the animals had a significant effect on the level of Mg in the red deer meat.
Abstract. Biotechnological methods can be used in dairy cow reproduction to increase reproductive potential and improve economic outcomes of milk production. Biotechnological methods widely used in reproduction include artificial insemination and embryo transfer, and more recently insemination with sexed semen, which makes it possible to control the sex of the offspring. This study presents an analysis of the effectiveness of the use of sexed semen in a selected herd of dairy cows. The results confirmed the effectiveness of sexed semen at increasing births of female calves. Sexed semen was most effective among heifers. In that group the fewest insemination doses were required for conception (1.54), and pregnancy after the first insemination procedure was noted in 52.2% of cases. The values of selected fertility parameters (calving-to-first-service interval, service period, services per conception, and rate of conception after first service) did not deviate significantly from recommended values in cows inseminated with sexed and unsexed semen. Among the group of cows inseminated with sexed semen, fertility parameters were significantly more favourable than in the group inseminated with conventional semen.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to define the extent of occurrence of stereotypic compulsive behaviour in chinchillas (biting the cage, licking the paws, fur chewing, aimless running around the cage) depending on the displayed character type (temperament). Thirty chinchillas were assigned to three character type (temperament) groups on the basis of a behavioural test. The conclusion of the analysis was that the chinchillas not displaying any signs of fear or hyper-excitability spent the least time on stereotypic compulsive behaviour. More timid individuals most frequently displayed oral compulsion such as paw licking or fur chewing, whereas hyperactive ones most frequently were observed to aimlessly run around the cage. It was concluded that the animal's disposition significantly influenced the amount of time spent on repetitive stereotypic behaviour (P ≤ 0.01), and also that the time of day significantly influenced the frequency of chinchillas biting cage bars (P ≤ 0.05). It was observed that chinchillas in group III manifested the analysed behaviour mainly during the night time, in the remaining two groups the intensity of studied traits was more diversified during both day and night. Additionally, a positive correlation was found between most analysed behaviours.
Abstract. The use of digital kinematic analysis in veterinary medicine provides great opportunities to diagnose lameness in dogs. The aim of the study was to determine the lateralization of the dog's gait and to create a gait model for a given individual at walk and trot. The material used for the study was a boxer bitch. The study was carried out on a dogPACER treadmill at feed speeds allowing the dog to move at walk and trot. The analysis performed in the Noraxon MyoVideo program included the length of the step and angulation in the joints in the three phases of movement. A comparative analysis of the angle values in the joints in both gait types indicates statistically significantly larger angulation (P<0.05) in the joints of the pelvic and thoracic limbs and a reflection of these changes in the distance between the steps taken. Deviations are most often visible for the left hip, knee and ankle joints and intensify when the gait rate increases in the initial phase of limb transfer. In addition to differences for the pelvic limbs, significant differences were found for angulation in the shoulder and elbow joints. The results indicate the advantages of kinematic analysis as a tool for early diagnosis of changes in the locomotor apparatus, which allows the implementation of appropriate therapy aimed at restoring the normal motor functions of the body.
Abstract. The widespread availability of legal pneumatic weapons is commonly abused to hurt animals. Determining the shotgun based on animal injuries is complex and requires the knowledge of gunshot wounds and animal tissues. In this study, a detailed gunshot wound analysis was conducted on bird carcasses. An attempt was made to examine damaged soft and hard tissues in Japanese quail. A ballistic device of low energy was used. It was found that the shot of an average velocity of 83 m · s–1 thoroughly penetrates a bird carcass of an average mass of 205.5 g. A head or a neck shot with the same velocity can lead to immediate death. The shot velocity of 110 m · s–1 generates enough energy to move a carcass. These prove how dangerous the weapon is when used to harm small animals. Further studies may contribute to creating a model of bird injuries produced by various shots and result in strict law on possession of low-energy pneumatic weapons in Poland.