Volume 18(4), 2019

Review Articles

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the monitoring methods in the aspect of the population and distribution of the brown bear (Ursus arctos)

Katarzyna Wielgórska, Joanna Gruszczyńska

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Abstract. Population monitoring is a key element in research in the field of animal ecology and nature conservation. Proper coordination of the monitoring program is necessary, especially in the case of species which are difficult to observe due to their biology and ecology, such as the brown bear (Ursus arctos). This paper discusses several monitoring methods, such as surveys, counting females with cubs, monitoring of dens, tagging and telemetry of individuals, use of camera traps, monitoring of damages caused by bears, mortality monitoring and genetic testing. The combination of several methods, depending on the geographic and economic conditions of the country, allows for their appropriate selection, so that the results obtained are as accurate as possible. In case of the brown bear, monitoring of the population should employ different, complementary methods.

Hormonal changes in dairy cows during periparturient period

Anna Kurpińska , Wiesław Skrzypczak

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Abstract. In the last month of pregnancy and the first weeks of lactation, intensive adaptations processes, both morphological and functional, take place in the cow's body. An organism adapts through changes in the intensity of metabolic processes and the activ­ity of its regulatory mechanisms. Maintaining the homeostasis of an organism in prepartum and postpartum periods is the key condition in health maintaining of the mother and the foetus/calf. This paper presents studies on changes in the levels of progesterone, estrogens, androgens, placental lactogen, relaxin, pregnancy glycoproteins, prostaglandin F2α, cortisol, oxytocin, prolactin, GnRH, LH, FSH, thyroid hormones, insulin and growth hormone, significantly associated with the growth and development of the foetus, preparation of the mammary glands for lactation, and, after parturition, with reproductive system regeneration and prepa­ration for new fertilization and pregnancy.

Original Research Articles

Analysis of body type evaluation of different color variants of farmed mink (Mustela vison Sch.) against current evaluation standard

Dorota Kołodziejczyk, Stanisław Socha

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze the body type traits in mink of different color variants, over a period of a few years, compared against the current mink evaluation standard. The mink were managed on mink farms located in northwestern Poland. The analysis covered the years 2011–2018. A statistically significant effect of color variant, year of assessment and farm, on which the license took place, was found. The highest average grades for the type were achieved by the mink in 2014, while the color variant achieving best grades was Standard mink. Sapphire mink attained a similar rating. The variability of the assessment of the mink type, measured by the coefficient of variation, ranged within 24.86–33.99%, depending on the adopted criterion. The mink with grade B were characterized by the highest percentage share among the tested animals. These represented 45% of all mink assessed.

The effect of storage time and temperature on the quality of natural yoghurt

Małgorzata Jakubowska, Tadeusz Karamucki

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Abstract. Cooling temperature and storage time have a significant effect on the quality of natural yogurts and their durability in retail. The aim of the study was to perform a physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic assessment of commercial yogurt, immediately after purchase and during 3 weeks of storage at 2°C and 8°C. The following physicochemical parameters were measured: pH, titratable acidity, color (CIEL a*, b*) and basic chemical composition. The organoleptic assessment included the general appearance and color, consistency, aroma and taste and desirability of yogurt. Microbiological tests have determined the amount of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterobacteriaceae bacteria, and checked the presence of mold and fungi. We have observed a significant effect of storage time on titratable and active acidity in the tested samples. No statistically significant effect of storage time on color of yogurt was observed. As the storage time increased, the number of yogurt microorganisms was decreasing. The minimum normative total amount of lactic acid bacteria was recorded on the day of purchase and after one week of storage at 8°C. As the storage time and the storage temperature increased, the taste and aroma of yogurt was decreasing significantly.

Comparison of feeding models in cows during dry period and their effect on the incidence of perinatal diseases as well as on reproductive and productive traits

Alina Janocha, Anna Milczarek, Katarzyna Kryszak, Dominik Nowak

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate to assess different models of feeding dairy cows during the dry period and their impact on the frequency of perinatal diseases as well as reproductive and production characteristics. The research material was a herd of 67 HF black and white dairy cows with a milk yield of 10,540 kg during 305 lactations. Two cow feeding models based on TMR and PMR systems were used in the study, except that the animals in the experimental period received a feed containing calcium chloride. It was shown, that accurate balancing of feed rations during the dry period reduces the incidence of postpartum disorders. The introduction of a feed containing calcium chloride in the feed ration for cows in the close-up period reduced the occurrence of perinatal diseases, i.e. foetal membrane retention (6.4 vs 33.2%), metritis (3.9 vs 61.3%) and abomasum displacement (2.6 vs 4.4%) and clinical hypocalcemia (2.6 vs 5.9). The use of the PMR system in the close-up period with a gradual increase in the DCAD-negative compound mixture individually proved to be effective in reducing the occurrence of perinatal diseases.

Extensity and intensity of intestinal parasite infections in pigs in different types of farm organization

Aleksandra Balicka-Ramisz, Jacek Wiśniewski, Olha Stadnytska

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to compare the intestinal parasite fauna of pigs kept in different production systems. Eggs of four nematode species: Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp. Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris suis as well as Eimeria protozoans were found in fecal samples of the examined pigs. In the farms performing an open production cycle, the percentage of infestation was lower (1.07 to 1.36%) than in the farms with a closed production cycle (13.30 to 20%). Differences were found in the scope of infection intensity with particular intestinal parasites depending on the farming system. The Oesphagostomum spp. was found in the largest number of farms (68.6%). Eimeria was located at the second place (42.9%), followed by Ascaris suum (28.6%), Trichuris suis (21.4%) and Strongyloides spp. (11.4%). Interviews with pig breeders showed that in closed-cycle farms, the deworming procedure was being performed sporadically or only after clear clinical symptoms of a parasitic invasion. Our research has confirmed that the problem of intestinal parasites in pigs is still relevant. In pigs, a preventive program should be introduced, in which a parasitological diagnostics will be an important part.

The occurrence of spermatozoa with acrosome reaction in semen of boars depending on staining method and storage duration

Anna Wysokińska, Angelika Chłopik

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Abstract. The aim of the present study was to analyze the frequency of occurrence of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa in semen stained with two methods, depending on boar semen storage time. The studies were conducted on ejaculates collected from 10 Landrace boars used in artificial insemination. The smears were prepared by means of two staining methods: SpermBlue and eosin-gentian dye. It was concluded that the proportion of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa depends on the staining method and ejaculate storage duration. When the smears were stained with the SpermBlue method, the number of spermatozoa with head defects, including acrosome reaction, was greater compared with the smears stained with the eosin-gentian dye. With the passage of semen storage time, a change in sperm count with an acrosome reaction was observed. In the SpermBlue-stained smears, the proportion of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was the highest in the 96th hour of storage and was about 2.5%. An increase in the number of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was observed in the semen stained with the eosin-gentian dye method in the following semen storage hours.

Assessment of ANXA9 SNP effects on milk performance traits in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

Hanna Kulig , Katarzyna Wojdak-Maksymiec , Małgorzata Szewczuk

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Abstract. The aim of this study was to estimate associations between the ANXA9 951A/G polymorphism and milk performance traits (daily milk yield, protein yield, fat yield, protein content and fat content), as well as somatic cell count in milk in 990 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The statistical analysis confirmed its significance in shaping the analyzed traits. In most cases, the presence of the allele A was associated with a decrease in the values of the above traits, while in the first lactation a significant additive effect of this allele toward increasing the values of the daily milk yield and SCC was found.

Importance of breeding and management of cold-blooded horses in terms of their meat utilization

Dorota Kołodziejczyk, Magda Socik, Stanisław Socha

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Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyze the role of breeding and utilization of cold-blooded horses. The analysis was based on both published statistical data and our own survey conducted in order to examine the level of horse meat consumption among Poles and to check their food preferences regarding this type of meat. We found that horse meat is virtually absent on Polish tables. This is due to the emotional attitude the Poles foster towards horses, so half of the respondents were entirely against horse meat consumption. Despite the varied attitude of respondents towards horse meat consumption, the analysis of statistical data shows that since 2013 the number of farms keeping 10 or more cold-blooded horses has been increasing. The current direction of changes, such as the development of agritourism, an increase in the number of organic farms, farmers joining agri-environmental programs or supporting activities for sustainable agriculture, will probably increase the scale of cold-blooded horse farming.