Abstract. The objective of the study was the assessment of the effect of a utilization form of noble horses, ponies and primitive horses managed under the same environmental conditions on their behavior at various riding-related activities during holiday time. A behavior pattern of 4 noble sport horses, 6 noble horses used for recreation and 9 primitive horses and ponies for recreational riding was analyzed. All the horses were housed in the same riding centre. The observations were carried out three times, i.e. at the holiday start, mid-holiday and after it. A scale from 1 point (refusal/undesirable negative behavior) to 5 points (most appropriate behavior, no objections) assessed horse behavior towards an approaching a stranger, cleaning activities, leg grooming, bridling, saddling and working under the saddle. A level of sport horse workload at the holiday season did not differ from that at other seasons (1–2 hrs daily on average). These horses had their permanent riders. The horses used for recreation worked more intensely during the holiday time (4 hrs on average)and carried riders of different skills levels. The behavior of noble sport horses did not show any changes at the holiday season. Whereas the behavior of the horses used for recreational riding was found to be significantly worse as against that of the sport horses during the holiday season. Most problems were observed at leg grooming-related activities in both, noble and primitive horses as well as in the pony group. As for the primitive horses and ponies, cleaning and working under the saddle induced marked worsening of the behavior as compared to the noble horses. Interestingly, the behavior worsened to the same extent in both horse groups at saddling activities. In order to prevent and limit development of undesirable behavioral events in horses, especially those for recreational riding, it is essential to provide constant control and didactic assistance of instructors and other professionals at the horse saddling or grooming activities. Notably, their regular effort should be targeted towards improvement of negative behavioral responses of ridden horses that occur at the holiday season.
Abstract. Cows of the Polish Holstein-Friesian black-white variety were tested to identify c.328G>A polymorphism in the FABP4 gene and g.422C>T polymorphism in the TG gene. Three different genotypes (GG, GA and GG) were identified in cows in the FABP4 gene, with the GG genotype (0.74) and wild type G allele (0.85) occurring most frequently. High frequency of the wild type C allele (0.815) was demonstrated also in the TG gene. While the TT homozygotes accounted for only 7% of the total numbers in the herd, the CC made up as much as 70% of the total. The impact of GG and GA genotypes in the FABP4 gene and of CC and CT in the TG gene on yield and composition of milk in the first 3 consecutive lactations of young cows was analyzed. No effect between the tested genotypes and milk performance traits has been demonstrated.
Abstract. The aim of investigation was the frequency of histopathological changes of the m. pectoralis superficialis of game and Mongolian pheasants of different ages. The samples for analyze from pectoral muscle were taken after bird slaughter immediately at 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age. Then with from the samples made the histological slides and stained with H + E coloring method to visualize of the muscle tissue structure. The muscle structure analysis was conducted per area 1.5 mm2 with the following histopathological changes: atrophy, shape changes, giant fibers, necrosis, hyaline degeneration, splitting, connective tissue hypertrophy and inflammatory. There was a small frequency of histopathological changes in both pheasant varieties. The most histopathological changes ware observed atrophy and changes of fiber shape. Other changes were sporadic. The connective tissue hypertrophy and inflammatory infiltration were not observed in any individuals. Mongolian pheasants found slightly higher frequency of histopathological changes, but these differences were not statistically significant. Considering the above facts, it can be stated that m. pectoralis superficialis both varieties of pheasants because of the small number of histopathological changes observed in their structure and their nutritional value are valuable raw materials for the high-quality food production.
Abstract. The research objective was characterization and assessment of the reproduction parameters of the mares from the Polish Konik horses nature reserve in the Roztocze National Park (RNP) during the years 1982-2016. A total of 26 mares were studied and 197 reproductive utilization seasons analyzed. It was established that 187 pregnant mares delivered 182 live foals. The data served to calculate the following average reproductive performance indices for the mare population: foaling rate (94.9%), fertility (92.4%), infertility (5.1%), miscarriage (2.7%), reared foals (95.1%), fecundity (87.8%), reproductive utilization of herd (92.5%), number of years bred (7.57), number of born-live foals from a dam (7.0 unit) and number of reared foals (6.65 unit). Throughout the study period, the representatives of three female lines were maintained in the herd, i.e. Traszka, Zaza and Urszulka. The foaling dates are characteristic for seasonal polyestrous females, hence the highest birth rate was noted in March (25.83%), April (32.97%) and May (18.13%), that accounted for 76.93% (140 units) of total 182 foalings. Although some mares tended to deliver more foals of the same sex, the final birth record of the 34-year study indicated 49.45% of colts (90 units) and 50.55% of fillies (92 units). The mares Trzmielina and Hurtnica had the longest reproductionally active period, that is 25 reproduction seasons, and died being 32 and 30 years old, respectively. Each of them produced 22 foals. They had their last foal at age 26 and thus confirmed the vital utility traits of the Polish Konik horses, namely longevity, high reproductive performance and resistance as well as perfect adaptation to environmental conditions. The obtained average values characterizing the mare population under investigation are very favorable and promising with respect to further successful development of the conservative breeding in the RNP.
Abstract. Somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk from test-day records obtained until 30 days before the first service were analyzed in relation to service efficacy, calving interval (CI), days open (DO) and services per conception rate (S/C). Statistical analysis (GLM, FREQ, CORR of the SAS package) involved 28.078 test-day records from 17.618 HF cows, which calved between 2011–2014. Significant (P ≤ 0.001) correlations were found between SCC and the fertility indices. First service successful conception was found to decrease by approx. 6% with an increase in SCC in milk. Increased SCC was accompanied by an extended calving interval (by 3 days) and days open (by 6 days), as well as by an increased S/C rate, from 1.99 in cows with SCC <100,000 cells · ml–1 to 2.03 in cows with SCC >1,000,000 cells · ml–1. This relationship was confirmed by positive coefficients of correlation between SCC vs. CI, DO and S/C. Dairy cattle producers should monitor SCC in milk, also because its possible increase may have a detrimental effect on the overall fertility of the herd.
Abstract. Analysis was made of the effect of herd, lactation number, day of lactation, season of testing, daily milk yield, and milk somatic cell count on the proportion of cow milk samples with a specific protein and urea content. There were not enough samples of milk containing 151–300 mg · l–1 urea and 3.21–3.6% protein which are indicative that the dietary protein and energy are balanced. The highest percentage of milk samples with the optimum protein and urea content was observed in multiparous cows during 101–200 and 201–300 days of lactation, which had a daily milk yield of 21–30 kg and 31–40 kg in the summer season. These factors should be considered when formulating cow rations as they influence milk protein and urea levels.
Abstract. A study on the effect of age at first calving on selected features of lifetime performance was carried out in one of the largest herds of Montbéliarde cows in Poland. Data from 205 culled cows included 12.430 test-day milking results and data pertaining to lifetime performance – length of life and productive life; number of calvings; lifetime actual yield of milk, fat, protein and dry matter; the content of these constituents in the milk; and FPCM per day of life and productive life. The values of the lifetime performance traits of the Montbéliarde cows varied depending on their age at first calving. The most favourable age at first calving for the lifetime performance traits of the Montbéliarde cows was 27–30 months (824–915 days), while calving too early (less than 824 days) or too late (above 1,038 days) was least favourable. Cows calving for the first time at the age of 824–915 days had the most favourable average daily milk yield (26.6 kg), lactation persistence (34.5% decrease), length of life and productive life (3.215 and 2.360 days), number of calvings (5.2), lifetime yield of milk and FPCM (49.330 and 50.104 kg), and lifetime yield of FPCM per day of life and productive life (15.7 and 21.4 kg) in relation to the other groups of cows. Differences in the values of these traits between cows that first calved at the age of 824–915 days and cows calving earliest and latest were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.01).
Abstract. The aim of the research was to genetically describe the cattle herd containing Hereford cattle (n = 141) and Limousin cattle (n = 161) based on the polymorphism in the 12th exon of the gene coding for insulin-like growth factor I receptor (bIGF1R/e12/MspI) and an attempt to estimate the potential relation between genetic variants and selected meat production traits features. The identification of the genotypes of particular individuals was carried out with PCR-RFLP. The most common genotype in the analysed herd was GG. There were no individuals with the AA genotype found. The statistical analysis revealed that the GG genotype was correlated with higher values of the analysed features compared to heterozygotes. The differences were statistically significant in most cases.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyze the profitability of organic farming of Limousin cattle and to compare selected production parameters with the conventional management system. The material involved 39 cows and their offspring from an organic farm and 81 cows with calves kept on a conventional farm, both located in West Pomerania, Poland; the data were retrieved from the "BOS" database system. Body weight of calves was established at birth and at weaning (converted to standardized body weight at 210 days of age), weight gains of calves from birth to 210 days and cow's milk yield. In the organic farm, basic analysis of the profitability of beef production was carried out when selling bulls around 250 kg in live weight. The average weight of Limousin calves at birth was significantly higher in the organic farm compared to those born in the traditional farming system, whereas at 210 days of age, the calves from the latter system were characterized by a higher body weight. They also attained greater body weight gains, and their mothers were characterized by better milk yields. It was also found that in the organic farm the parameters were more favorable in heifers compared to bull calves. The analysis of the economic effects of beef production on an organic farm showed that the total production costs including overhead summed up to PLN 2,581, and the production cost of 1 kg live weight was at the level of PLN 10.33. The profitability parameters, including direct payment and without it, were 122% and 106%, respectively.