Abstract. Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital defects in the domestic dog associated with abnormal craniofacial development. Brachycephalic breeds seem to be most predilected. This anatomical and functional disorder is characterized by the presence of the fissure connecting the oral and nasal cavities. There are clefts of primary and/or secondary palate. Despite developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods, clinical examination and surgery are still the basis for the diagnosis and possible treatment of the malformation. In most cases euthanasia of the animal is performed. The eliminatin of affected individuals from the breeding is strongly recommended. The defect has probably a heterogeneous etiology, both genetic and environmental factors contributing to its formation. However, its genetic etiology has not yet been clearly explained.
Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the budgerigar hatching in private breedings. The study was carried out in a private breeding in Masovian voivodeship between 2009 and 2012 on four pairs of budgerigars kept in year-round outdoor aviaries. The analysis of hatching was based on the following indicators: the number of eggs laid by four females in the system of three clutches in one year, the percentage of fertilization and the hatchability ratio. Within four subsequent breeding seasons, the greatest number of eggs females altogether laid in the Clutch 2 (92) and the lowest in Clutch 3 (79). Some variability occured between the observed females: the worst results presented the Pair I, which raised 57 chicks of 64 laid eggs within 4 subsequent years. Most chicks (69 of 74 laid eggs) were obtained from the Pair IV. This couple had an impressive 100% reproductive rate in the first year of study. The observed pairs of budgerigars presented good reproductive rates. In most cases the percentage of fertilization and hatchability were over 90%. Present study is a base for further observation of budgerigars reproduction and incubative behaviour and it could be a comparative material for this type of study carried out in natural environment.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to compare selected performance characteristics of primiparous Montbéliarde cows imported as in–calf heifers from France (194 heifers) and their daughters born in Poland (93). The analysis took into account the level of culling during the first lactation, age at first calving, milk yield over 100 and 305 days of lactation and complete lactation, and changes in daily milk yield over the course of lactation. The analysis included 283 complete lactations and 3,550 results of test-day milking carried out since 2006. The performance of the primiparous Montbéliarde cows imported from France as in-calf heifers was shown to be less favourable than that of their daughters born in Poland. In the imported heifers the level of culling after the first calving was higher (by 10.1%), milk production began significantly later (by 95 days) and lactations lasted longer (by 88 days). The home–bred cows also had more favourable indices for yield of milk (from 297 to 1,535 kg, depending on the period of lactation), fat, protein, and dry matter, and their lactations were more persistent. It was determined that the acclimation process may have had a negative effect on the performance of the cows imported from France as in-calf heifers.
Abstract. The study revealed the optimal concentration of reduced glutathione and bovine serum albumin in the lactose-yolk-tris-citrate-glycerine diluent in ram–sires sperm cryopreservation. It was shown that the addition of 5 μM of reduced glutathione and 15 mg · ml-1 of bovine serum albumin into the lactose-yolk-tris-citrate-glycerine diluent contributes to the increase in frozen–thawed sperm activity by 11.0%, its resistance to cryopreservation by 6.0%, intact acrosome by 9.5%, sperm surviving rate by 23.9%, absolute survival indicator by 21.8%, sperm kinetic indicators: VCL – by 14.3%, VAP – by 12.5%, VSL – by 15.4%, LIN – by 0.4%, STR – by 2.2%, as well as fertilization rate by 12.0%. These results prove the positive effect of the addition of bioactive substances into the diluent on the qualitative features of frozen–thawed sperm.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyse the cost-effectiveness of chinchilla breeding in Poland on the basis of the production analysis of a selected chinchilla farm located in the Mazowieckie voivodship, Poland. The analysis covered a period of two years and involved a total of 250 Standard and Black Velvet chinchillas. The following traits were studied: litter size at birth and litter size at weaning. Economic analysis involved the turnover and costs of the farm. We applied the system of cost estimation in which all costs are broken down into direct and indirect costs. Cost-effectiveness of the farm was evaluated based on economic indices and reproduction performance of the animals. The costs of feeds and salaries were those most strongly affecting the total cost of farming, although reproductive performance of the chinchillas also significantly influenced the profitability of the farm. The production of the studied chinchilla farm was profitable, as evidenced by the profitability index, which in 2011 amounted to 127.27% and increased the following year to the level of 143.13%. Showing an upward trend, the rate of return (27.27% in 2011 and 43.13% in 2012) may indicate a progress in the efficiency of the activity of the studied farm.
Abstract. The study was carried out on 70 pigs divided into two groups: control and experimental (APS), the latter receiving an addition of active plant substances: cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol and capsaicin in the amount of 80 mg per 1 kg feed. During the experiment, fattening and slaughter performance and blood serum biochemical indices, including total antioxidant status (TAS), were evaluated. The application of active plant substances during the fattening period did not have any effect on the improvement of fattening performance and carcass slaughter value. However, a statistically significant effect of this additive on lipid metabolism was observed, which is indicated by a decrease in the concentration of LDL fraction (P≤0.05) and an increase in that of HDL fraction (P≤0.01). Capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol also induced an increase in the protein concentration (P≤0.01) and total antioxidant status (P≤0.05) in the blood serum of fatteners.
Abstract. Records of 384965 parturitions and milk and reproductive performance in subsequent production cycles of 114 526 Black-and-White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows were collected from the SYMLEK database. The animals represented the active population in Pomorze and Kujawy regions, first calved in 2000-2012, and were used or culled until the end of 2013. The GLM and FREQ procedures of the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. Sex of the calf influenced milk and reproductive performance of Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and the effect was more favourable after a female calf was born. The advantage in milk performance of the cows which gave birth to female calves at first calving may be of importance in modern dairy herds, considering the increasing availability of sexed semen. Significant but small (around 1%) differences in the sex ratio of calves born within factors such as cow’s age or production level in the previous lactation do not allow taking these factors into consideration when controlling the sex of the calves born.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate exsanguination of fatteners with a different backfat thickness. The study covered 126 gilts of Polish Landrace, examined in Pig Performance Testing Station in Chorzelów and slaughtered at the body weight of 100 kg. During slaughter the weight of blood from the wound and the weight of blood collected at each minute of exsanguination was measured. The tests of exsanguination were performed on the samples of the neck muscle (musculi colli), the diaphragm muscle (diaphragma musculus) and the internal oblique abdomen muscle (musculus internus abdominis obliguus). To assess the influence of fat content on exsanguination the animals were divided into two groups depending on the average backfat thickness from five measurements: Group I – below 1.40 cm, Group 2 – above 1.40 cm. It was shown that fatteners with a smaller backfat thickness showed a more favourable course of exsanguination and a higher weight and percentage of slaughter blood and blood output in the first minute of exsanguination. No influence of fat content on the exsanguination rate of the examined muscles was observed.