ISSN 1644-0714 e-ISSN 2300-6145


Volume 15(1), 2016

Original Research Articles

Evaluation of selected physical and microbiological parameters of air in a box-stall stable 

Katarzyna Budzińska, Bożena Szejniuk, Anita Jurek, Magdalena Michalska, Adam Traczykowski, Krzysztof Berleć

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate selected physical and microbiological air parameters. The analysis was conducted during the spring, summer, fall and winter in a box-stall stable with Wielkopolski horses. The physical air parameters were measured according to generally established methods used in livestock science. The air was evaluated for microbial contamination by the impaction method; 12 samplings were carried out using a SAS 100 sampler located in three sampling sites of the stable: the initial, middle, and end part of the building. The numbers of the following microbes were determined in the analyzed air: total bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae cells, streptococci, mannitol positive staphylococci, hemolytic bacteria, actinomycetes and total molds and yeast-like fungi. Measurements of temperature and humidity parameters showed that the average air temperature in the stables was lowest in the winter, 8.2°C with humidity 76.2%, whereas the highest average air temperatures, which averaged 21.2°C with the lowest relative humidity of 60.2%, were recorded in the summer. The other air physical parameters corresponded to the minimum requirements for horses. Microbiological analyses of air samples revealed the presence of bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, staphylococci, streptococci, as well as fungi that can adversely affect the health of horses and people in the stables. We the found air microbial contamination above the standard level, and it depended on microclimate conditions and the season.

Oestrus-like symptoms in pregnant bitches 

Piotr Jurka, Andrzej Max, Piotr Trębacz, Rafał Sapierzyński

Abstract. Oestrogenization during pregnancy was described in a few animal species and in women. Authors of this paper observed oestrus-like symptoms during five pregnancies in four bitches (group S) and compared chosen parameters with those in pregnant bitches without such symptoms (group C). Studied bitches were examined by vaginoscopy, vaginal cytology and ultrasonography. Concentrations of progesterone, estrogens and testosterone were measured. Blood progesterone concentration during pregnancy was similar in groups S and C. There were statistically significant differences in concentration of estrogens from 21st to 35th day postmating (p from 0.01 to 0.001). Testosterone concentrations showed statistically significant differences between group S and C only on 42nd and 56th day postmating (P ≥ 0.01). We did not observe signs of embryonic resorption or miscarriage in group S, and bitches delivered 6, 5, 7, 8 and 11 puppies. Higher estrogens concentration in pregnant bitches with oestrus-like symptoms suggests hormonal extra supplementation, but the source/es of estrogens remained unknown. Additional research would be necessary to discover the source of estrogens in pregnant bitches.

Comparison of three methods of queen bee introduction in a stationary commercial apiary 

Dariusz Karwan

Abstract. Three methods of queen introduction to honey producing colonies using a metal one-frame isolator, a round queen’s cap, and a standard mailing cage were evaluated. In total, 60 Apis mellifera carnica queens, naturally inseminated, with verified oviposition, were introduced, 20 per each method. The queens were introduced in two series, 10 in each of them, in the commercial nectar-flow period and in the post-nectar-flow period, during the feeding of bees for winter. The efficiency of queen introduction in high season amounted to 95%, whereas 100% after the post-nectar–flow period. In the method with a metal one-frame isolator, 65% of queens started egg laying to 24 hours after the time of introduction. In the method using a metal round queen’s cap, 90% of queens laid eggs to 48 hours after introduction. In the method using a mailing cage, 90% of queens started oviposition between 48–72 hours after introduction.

Analysis of reproduction and growth in fancy pigeons 

Danuta Majewska, Tomasz Drenikowski

Abstract. The study was conducted on ornamental pigeons kept by a private pigeon breeder in Poland. The experimental population was Polish Owl and Warsaw Butterfly Tumbler pigeons and the offspring obtained from pairs of these breeds during the breeding season. In the breeding season, the number of eggs laid by each female was recorded, egg weight measurements were made and egg width (short axis) and length (long axis) were measured. The percentage of fertilized eggs and dead embryos, as well as hatchability of set and fertilized eggs were calculated. The body weight was monitored until 3 months of age in order to determine the growth rate. In the breeding season analyzed, Warsaw Butterfly Tumbler pigeons were characterized by better egg laying performance (10.3 eggs per female) than Polish Owl ones (6.72 eggs per female). Both pigeon breeds laid eggs of a similar weight (14.8 g). Egg shape index in Polish Owl pigeons was 73.04%, whereas in Warsaw Butterfly Tumblers it was 3% greater (differences statistically significant). Egg fertilization rate in Polish Owl pigeons was low, 64.86%, whereas in Warsaw Butterfly Tumbler it was 25% higher. Chicks hatched from 97.2% of fertilized eggs in Polish Owl pigeons and from 69.57% eggs in Warsaw Butterfly Tumblers. The highest body weight gains in the pigeon breeds under analysis were observed during the period from hatching to 4 weeks of age.

The impact of season of birth and age of boars of Polish Landrace breed on breeding operation results 

Kazimierz Pokrywka, Krzysztof Tereszkiewicz, Piotr Molenda

Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of season of birth and breeding of boars of Polish Landrace breed on their insemination efficiency. The study material consisted of 35 589 ejaculates collected between 1994–2013 from 330 of Polish Landrace breed boars farmed in Małopolska Biotechnology Centre, the Examination Station of Boars in Czermin. Ejaculates were marked with: volume of ejaculate, without spermatozoid fraction, percentage of progressive spermatozoids, concentration o spermatozoids, the general number of spermatozoids in the ejaculate, number of insemination doses and value of one ejaculate. The conducted studies demonstrate a significant impact of interaction between the season of birth and the age of boar in the process of development of all the physical parameters of semen in Polish Landrace breed boars. The studies have shown that the highest reproduction potential, demonstrated with the number of insemination doses collected (26.96), was found in the oldest boars born during summer season. The results of studies indicate that quantitative and qualitative parameters of semen of the Polish Landrace breed boars mainly depend on their age. The highest variability affecting the characteristics of ejaculates, resulting from the effect of boars’ age, was found for the ejaculate volume of (86.14%), whereas impact of birth season was marked by the percentage of spermatozoids with inferior changes (61.64% of the variability).