ISSN 1644-0714 e-ISSN 2300-6145

Zootechnica

Volume 13(4), 2014

  1. Title page
  2. Editorial page

Review Articles

Selenium in the diet of ruminants 

Barna Kruzhel, Małgorzata Bąkowska, Stakh Vovk, Ewa Nowakowska, Pavkovych Sergei

Abstract. The results of the research show that there is a deficiency in Se in the environment in most regions. It is crucial to supplement selenium deficiency in ruminants from deficient regions as long-lasting lack of this element may lead to many diseases. Selenium serum or blood level can be an indicator of the supply of this element in ruminants (intravitally) as well as its content in the liver and kidneys. The most commonly used criterion for assessing the selenium status in livestock is its serum or blood content. At a low concentration of this element in the serum/blood of ruminants, its supplementation is necessary.

Original Research Articles

Effect of changing the cow's milking system on daily yield and cytological quality of milk 

Mariusz Bogucki, Anna Sawa, Wojciech Neja

Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of changing the milking system (from a milking parlour to automatic milking) on daily yield of cows and cytological quality of their milk. GLM and FREQ procedures of the SAS package were used in the statistical calculations. The change in the milking system caused a short-term decrease in daily yield and an increase in milk somatic cell count (SCC). In the long term (12 months), daily yield increased (P ≤ 0.01) from 27.7 kg milk for cows milked in the milking parlour to 31.1 kg milk for cows milked automatically. The change in the milking system from the milking parlour to automatic milking had a positive effect on milk somatic cell count as the natural logarithm of SCC decreased from 12.44 to 11.97. The proportion of milk samples with low SCC (<100,000 cells/ml and from 101,000 to 200,000 cells · ml–1) increased by 2.84 and 7.52%, respectively, whereas the proportion of milk samples with high SCC (>400,000 cells · ml–1) decreased by 5.68%.

Comparison of mineral content and physical characteristics of hair in yearling Arctic foxes from different farms 

Ryszard Cholewa, Mirosław Mleczek, Dorota Kołodziejczyk, Stanisław Socha

Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyse the content of minerals and physical properties of hair in the coat of yearling Arctic foxes managed on various farms. Winter hair samples were collected from 86 yearling female blue Arctic foxes from farms located in the Wielkopolska (two farms) and West Pomerania (one farm) regions of Poland. The samples were analysed for the concentration of Mg, K, Ca, using atomic emission spectrometry (AES), Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS), and As and Se, by means of hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). Mineral concentration in the foxes from the West Pomeranian farm was considerably higher (more than 10%) compared with that measured on both Wielkopolska farms. The foxes from the latter two farms had a similar level of minerals, with a slightly lower values on one of the farms, except for K, Ca, Co, Fe, Cd, and As. This demonstrates that mineral content in hair may differ from farm to farm and may be influenced by environmental factors. Mineral content may also be related to the physical properties of the coat, mainly with the color (length of dark phase of the hair) and the length of hairs.

Concentration of minerals in the coat of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) of various color morphs and their crossbreds vs. hair strength properties 

Ryszard Cholewa, Mirosław Mleczek, Dorota Kołodziejczyk, Stanisław Socha

Abstract. The aim of the study was to quantitatively establish the concentration of minerals in the coat of red foxes and an attempt to relate their composition with the resistance properties of single hairs of the coat. The analyses were carried out on 122 hair samples of red foxes of various color morphs and their crossbreds, collected from 61 live animals, from the middle of the back and from the right side of the body. The study took place during autumn and winter in a fox farm located in the Wielkopolskie voivodship, Poland. The animals were as follows: 11 silver femals, 7 females and 3 males of the platinum morph, 8 platinum-pastel males, 10 females and 4 males of the pastel morph, 3 cross females, and 11 females and 4 males of the fire morph. The samples were analyzed for Mg, K and Ca by atomic emission spectrometry (AES) and for Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentration of minerals in the coat of the studied red foxes varied on the back and the side of the females and males. Most minerals in the coat of females was on both areas of the body in silver foxes, and the least – in the cross foxes. In males, more minerals were on both areas of the side of the platinum foxes compared to pastel and other color variants. Pastel foxes demonstrated the highers hair strength parameters among the color morphs.

The effect of the lactic acid addition to drinking water on the hygiene and quality of chicken broiler meat 

Małgorzata Jakubowska, Józefa Gardzielewska, Tadeusz Karamucki, Artur Rybarczyk, Danuta Czernomysy-Furowicz, Paulius Matusevičius

Abstract. The objective of the study was to check whether the application of 0.4% lactic acid solution to chicken broilers during pre–slaughter turnover causes a decrease in the bacterial contamination level of the meat and the technological meat quality. The study included 60 chicken broilers, Ross 308, which were subjected to pre-slaughter fasting for 12 hours. The birds were divided into two groups: the control, which was given clean drinking water, and the experimental group, which was given 0.4% lactic acid solution. 24 h after the slaughter samples were taken from pectoral muscle in order to assess the total number of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, Salmonella ssp. and Campylobacter bacteria. In the collected material the presence of the Salmonella ssp. or Campylobacter bacteria was not detected. The application of 0.4% lactic acid solution to chicken broilers 12 hours pre-slaughter showed a positive tendency to decrease the number of aerobic microorganisms in the chicken pectoral muscle. The mean number of the aerobic bacteria in the control group muscles was 5.2 x 105 whilst in the experimental group it was half the amount and was equal to 2.7 x 105. The lactic acid solution did not alter the technological meat quality.

Effectivness of using faba bean seeds and corn distillers grains with soubles as a partial replacement the soybean meal in feeding of Pulawska pigs 

Anna Milczarek, Maria Osek

Abstract. The aim of the present work was to determine fattening and slaughter results of pigs as well as physical properties of meat Pulawska breed fed mixtures containing faba beans and corn distillers dried grains with soubles (DDGS). Thirty animals were divided into three equal groups: control (I) and two experimental (II and III). Pigs were kept in pens and fed collective ad libitum, the same mixtures throughout fattening. In the mixture of the control animals group only raw material for high-protein soybean meal was, while in mixtures experimental groups 1/3 of extracted soybean meal protein by faba bean (group II) or DDGS (group III) was replaced. Introduction of 10% low-tannin faba bean in the mixtures for pigs did not effect the daily weight gains, while the use of the same amount of corn distillers dried grains with soubles in the diet significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced daily gains and, consequently, the final body weight of the fatteners. No effects of the nutrition on fleshiness and fatness carcasses were notice. Longissimus muscle of pigs fed DDGS characterized by the highest drip loss after 48 and 72 hours from slaughter (P ≤ 0.05) and the lowest saturation yellow b* (P ≤ 0.05).

Evaluation of the influence of demographic factors on the success of reintroduction of small herds of European bison 

Agnieszka Suchecka, Wanda Olech, Magdalena Łopieńska

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal size and composition of founding groups to create new herds of European bison. The computer simulations of the development of new herds in a period of 20 years was conducted with VORTEX software. The initial size of the founding groups N0, sex ratio (M:F) and carrying capacity (K) impact on the new population development was estimated. The expected level of preserved heterozygosity (EH) and the risk of extinction of these populations were also analyzed. It was proved that the most favorable founding group considering the growth rate, the highest level of expected heterozygosity and the lowest level of extinction probability are those with small prevalence of females. The influence of carrying capacity on population growth rate was observed only in the most numerous founding groups.

Short Communications

Problems in cooperation with breeders and dog owners on the example of entropion frequency estimation in Polish Hounds 

Marta Książek, Joanna Gruszczyńska, Beata Grzegrzółka

Abstract. Entropion is a rolling of the eyelid inward toward the eye. It is fairly common condition in a wide variety of dog breeds and its mode of inheritance is not well understood. Entropion has been also documented in the population of Polish Hounds. The current size of the population is estimated at 1000 dogs. The Polish Hound is a breed with low genetic variation and high imbalance of founder contributions to the gene pool of the present population. The first study on entropion in Polish Hounds performed in Poland in 2002 showed that only 29 out of 100 dogs examined were healthy. Further studies revealed that 17 out of 74 dogs had entropion. The aim of this research was to analyze the incidence of entropion in the population of Polish Hounds. In total, 158 letters were sent out to the breeders and owners of Polish Hounds to solicit medical information about the condition of dogs’ eyelids. Overall, we only obtained information on 19 dogs from 18 persons. The conclusion is that Polish Hound breeders and owners, and even the management of the Polish Hound Club are not interested in giving information about the cases of entropion and probably for economic reasons, elimination of affected animals from breeding. Lack of interest of breeders and dog owners in cooperation in this area makes the studies on tracing this defect inheritance in Polish Hounds impossible.