ISSN 1644-0714 e-ISSN 2300-6145


Volume 12(4), 2013

Original Research Articles

Correlation of the traits of fur from different parts of the body in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus L.) 

Ryszard Cholewa, Jerzy Gedymin, Stanisław Socha

Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate into the possibility of evaluating arctic fox fur basing on the correlation of laboratory measurements of hairs collected from various parts of the coat. The material involved samples of prime fur hairs of 20 two-year-old females of the blue arctic fox, collected at the end of January. The samples were cut by the skin at six places of the body, namely: the head (between the ears), back (in the middle between the tail base and the neck base), the side (below the place of sampling located on the back), belly (mid between the base of the front limbs and the vulva), the tail (in the middle of the dorsal side), as well as the shank. The samples were subjected to macro- and microscopic measurements. The results indicate that fur coat of arctic foxes is more dense, longer, and usually more intensely colored on the back, as compared to the belly. The hairs on the head and the limbs are much shorter and contain more awn hairs. The results reveal a very weak correlation of the morphological fur characteristics between different parts of the body. It has been found that it is impossible to objectively evaluate the basic structural characteristics and the dark tops of hairs in the arctic fox on the basis of a sample of hair from a single part of the body.

Analysis of conformation traits of New Zealand White rabbits on a breeding farm 

Dorota Kołodziejczyk, Aldona Gontarz, Stanisław Socha

Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyze the conformation traits of rabbits in relation to the year of evaluation and sex of the animals. The analyzes involved a rabbit production farm located in south-eastern Poland. The farm is specialized in the following breeds: New Zealand White, Blanc de Termonde, Alaska, Californian White, Giant Chinchilla, and Popielno White. The study covered 858 New Zealand White rabbits (741 does and 117 bucks). The ANOVA results indicated statistically significant effect of sex on the quality of the coat, body frame and breed type. The year of evaluation statistically significantly influenced the body size, weight, hair coat quality, specific breed traits, body frame, breed type, and the total score attained by the rabbits. The interaction sex x year of evaluation significantly influenced body weight only, whereas no significant effect can be found if we look at the remaining traits. The variation of the traits, as measured with the coefficient of variability, ranged from 1.05 to 9.19%. The correlations were quite varied, ranging from –0.7715 (between the breed type and the year of evaluation) up to 0.6017 (between the body frame and the total score). The analyzed animals were characterized by very good body type and conformation parameters, which is demonstrated by a high score achieved for each trait.

Study by scanning electron microscopy of the morphogenesis of filiform and fungiform papillae in the rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domestica 

Mirosława Kulawik, Szymon Godynicki

Abstract. Rudiments of fungiform papillae were observed at day 18 of prenatal development. They were arranged only on the dorsal surface of the apex of the tongue and its margins. The fungiform papillae looked like a hemispherical, dome-shaped eminences. From day 22 of prenatal development, scanning electron microscope showed also that rudiments of fungiform papillae appeared on the body of the tongue at the front of forming torus linguae, and on its both sides. No rudiments of filiform papillae were observed at day 22 of prenatal development. However, after removal the epithelium, the connective tissue cores of rudiments of fungiform and filiform papillae were visible. Scanning electron microscopy showed on the surface of the tongue numerous filiform papillae at day 26 of prenatal development. They were arranged on the entire dorsal surface of the apex and body of the tongue, and on its margins. During morphogenesis two types of filiform papillae were noticed. One type of filiform papillae was similar to separated cones, another had 3–4 processes more. The similar changes was with the shape of connective tissue core. The fungiform papillae were located among filiform papillae. Scanning electron microscope showed three types connective tissue cores of developing fungiform papillae. One type was mace-shaped, another one was bowl-shaped and yet barred-shaped. At day 30 of postnatal development on the surface of the connective tissue cores of fungiform papillae, from its top towards its base there were parallel and longitudinal folds.

Rearing results and dietetic value of broiler chickens meat in dependence from grains composition in mixtures oiled with soybean and linseed oils 

Maria Osek, Renata Świnarska, Anna Milczarek, Barbara Klocek, Alina Janocha

Abstract. The experiment was carried out on 200 ROSS 308 broiler chickens that were randomly assigned to 5 equal groups (K, D1, D2, D3, D4). The birds were fed the mixtures Starter (1–21 days of rearing) and Grower/Finisher (21–42 days) oiled with a mixture of soybean oil (3%) and linseed oil (3%). Two different grains represented the experimental factor, and were added to the mixtures in a 1:1 ratio, according to the following design: group K (control) – maize and wheat, group D1 – wheat and barley, group D2 – wheat and triticale, group D3 – maize and barley, group D4 – maize and triticale. It was shown that chickens fed the mixtures with triticale at age 42 days had significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher body weight than those that received mixtures with barley. In the whole period of rearing, a significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower feed conversion ratio was found in chickens fed diets containing wheat and barley, as compared with the control group. The used mixtures did not influence musculature and the proportion of skin with subcutaneous fat in carcasses; however, a significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower abdominal fat level was found in carcasses of chicken fed mixtures containing wheat and triticale and wheat and barley, as comparer with the broilers from other groups (K, D3 and D4). No effect of feeding on the content of most fatty acids in the lipids of leg muscles was found, while the breast muscles of the birds receiving the mixture with wheat and barley have shown a significant decrease in the proportion of linolenic acid and an increase in stearic acid. There were no significant effects of grain composition in mixtures in terms of muscle pH or sensory properties of the meat; they had, however, an impact on its color.

The daily distribution of milkings of cows in farms equipped with the automatic milking system 

Dariusz Piwczyński, Beata Sitkowska, Joanna Aerts, Magdalena Kolenda

Abstract. The material of the study consisted of 140 cows of PHF breed, reared in the farm equipped with the automatic milking system (AMS). Cows in different lactations (from 1 to 5) were reared in the period from May 2011 to April 2013. The daily distribution of milkings (12, two-hours periods) was analyzed according to: cows’ age (primiparous and multiparous), the average milk production per milking during the whole lactation (<12.5 kg, ≥12.5 kg) and season (spring, summer, autumn, winter). The statistical analysis was conducted with the use of the χ2 independence test. It was noted that the daily distribution of milkings was statistically conditioned by all analyzed factors. The first peak of the increased milking frequency was obtained during midday hours and the next one during late night hours, i.e. during hours that are generally different from the typical milking hours in farms that do not use AMS. The lowest milking frequency was recorded during milking hours typical for farms that do not use the AMS.

An analysis of PPARGC1A gene polymorphism in relation to carcass quality in PIC hybrid fatteners 

Daniel Polasik, Agnieszka Głodek, Artur Rybarczyk

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the association between polymorphism located in exon 8 of PPARGC1A gene (Cys430Ser) and carcass quality in pigs. Experiment was carried out on 350 PIC hybrid fatteners. Polymorphism was analyzed using PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of genotypes was as follows: AA – 0.33, AT – 0.57, TT – 0.1, however alleles: A – 0.62, T – 0.38. In the analyzed population loss of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed (P ≤ 0.01). Statistical analysis showed that only one of the evaluated traits was associated with individual PPARGC1A genotypes. Cooling loss value for pig carcasses with TT genotype was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) higher than observed in those with AA and AT genotypes.

Evaluation of selected physical parameters of air in autumn in stables of Nowielice Stud Farm 

Agnieszka Prokulewicz, Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak

Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature and humidity of air and light conditions in autumn in SK Nowielice stables. This study did not reveal any aberrancies from proper zoohygienic standards and thus did not decrease in horse welfare in autumn.