Abstract. Gonadectomy is the most commonly used method for permanent contraception in small animals. The irreversibility of the method is however a main drawback for its use in valuable breeding animals. Moreover, several negative side effects can be observed after surgical castration. Therefore several non-surgical methods were developed. This paper describes the current non-surgical methods of contraception used in female dogs and cats. They include hormonal procedures, such as application of progestins, androgens and GnRH analogues in order to prevent the ovarian cycle. Another method is the use of 4–vinylcyclohexene diepoxide, an industrial chemical destroying primordial and primary ovarian follicles. Further prospective possibilities consist in immunocontraception and in the elaboration of a safe and effective vaccine with reversible effect. Finally the use of several abortive drugs, such as aglepristone, PGF2alpha and dopamine agonists are presented.
Abstract. The main objective of the study was a comparison for cholesterol in yogurts made from sheep milk, goat milk, cow milk, and their 1:1 mixures. The products were also subjected to consumer sensory evaluation of flavour, colour, and consistency. The sensory analysis was carried out by a group of 30 people (3rd year students of the Agriculture and Biotechnology Department at the University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz). The type of milk was a decisive factor in the organoleptic assessment of the quality of given yogurt. As regards the best taste and smell, respondents selected sheep, cow, and mixed cow-ship milk yogurts. Goat yogurt had the brightest colour, said to be snow-white, whereas the cow yogurt colour was creamy yellow. Yogurt made of goat, cow and mixed (cow and sheep) milk was characterised by the highest stability of curd.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of housing conditions on the reproduction and welfare of geese. Welfare evaluation was based on performance indices. The study was carried out in the spring in two farms (A and B), located in the south-eastern Podlasie, Poland. The goose houses in both farms were equipped with similar technical and technological solutions. Evaluation of the housing conditions was based on the indices of area and cubature of the houses and basic parameters of the microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, and lighting). Both farms raised 3-year-old White Kołuda geese. The study showed that housing conditions affect the reproductive performance and the welfare of geese. In farms A and B, most of the analyzed elements of the farming environment remained within the approved welfare standards, with more optimal values observed in farm A. Better conditions in farm A resulted in a higher number of eggs laid (73) and goslings born (40.3) per goose and in lower deaths and culling rates (1.8%). It should be stressed that both farms attained high productivity levels with very little deviation from the farming welfare requirements for geese.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate production and egg quality results of Rhode Island Red (line R-11) hens during the first and second year of production. The study was performed with 200 Rhode Island Red hens and 210 eggs obtained at 21, 33, 43, 56, 73, 83 and 93 weeks of age. The results show that during rearing and egg production, birds were characterized by a high survival rate and good health. Laying rate averaged 64.18% during the first year of egg production (21 to 56 weeks) and 51.44% during the second year (63 to 99 weeks of age). Average body weight of the birds and egg weight in the first year of the study were up to breed standard, with significantly higher values in the second year of productive life. Egg quality assessment showed the average weight of eggs increased with the age of hens from 44.90 (week 21) to 64.14 g (week 93). The increase in egg weight was paralleled by a significant increase in yolk and shell weight. Eggs were characterized by good parameters of albumen (albumen height, Haugh units) and shell quality. These traits deteriorated significantly towards the end of the second egg production period. The production results and the good quality of eggs for almost the entire period of the second laying cycle indicate that it is appropriate to use Rhode Island Red R-11 hens for two years.
Abstract. The aim of this study was to examine insertion-deletion polymorphisms (one being 12bp-long in intron 1 and second being 23bp-long in the promoter) in water buffalo. The blood samples were collected from two water buffalo herds (40 individuals). DNA was isolated using a commercial Master Pure DNA Purification Kit. After conducting 2 PCRs, and then electrophoreses in 4% agarose gel, it was found that there was no polymorphism in either PRNP 12 ins/del the PRNP 23 ins/del in the analyzed group of animals. All individuals were characterized by the ins/ins genotype for both polymorphisms. Because of the fact that four different genotypes were found in the Anatolian breed and only one genotype was identified in the breed examined in the present study, more breeds of this species should be included in further research.
Abstract. The study was conducted in two dairy farms located in the province of Wielkopolska, Poland. Body condition scoring of Holstein-Friesian cows was carried out in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In all, were carried out 1999 BCS assessments on 459 cows, housed in a free-stall barn, and 88 cows, housed in a tie-stall barn. Statistical analysis involved the housing system (free-stall and tie-stall), the technological status (primiparous and multiparous cows), and the season. The mean BCS of free-stall cows decreased until 100 days in lactation, then it increased again and reached the peak in dry cows, 3 weeks before calving. Primiparous cows had higher BCSs than multiparous cows. The effect of season on BCS in the free-stall system cows was significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). BCS was lowest in the autumn. Moreover, technological group had an effect on BCS in the free-stall barn (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05); however, housing system was without a significant effect on the mean BCS or its distribution. In the movement restricting tie-stall housing system allows maintaining an optimal BCS by provision well balanced feeding rations.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of age, sex and evaluation year on conformation traits in the Standard chinchilla. Data for the analysis was collected over the years 2007-2010 and comes from conformation assessments performed on 1657 Standard chinchillas (976 females and 681 males) raised on farms in the north of Poland. The analysis revealed that the best rated traits of conformation included belly belt, age, and size. The study also showed that the effects of age, sex, and the year of evaluation on chinchilla conformation scores were statistically significant. Moreover, it was observed that for different ages (from 6 to more then 15 months) the results achieved by particular animals for the size and shape, color type, or quality of fur were significantly different and reached the highest values for chinchillas at age 7-10 and 11-14 months. Also a significant effect of sex was found in relation to color type and purity of fur, and better scores were attained by males. A significant interaction was found between age and sex in relation to color purity of fur.