# Volume 12(3), 2013

## Original Research Articles

### Effect of the intensity of recreational horse use in the summer holiday season on serum Se concentration and chosen haematological parameters

Angelika Cieśla, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak, Ryszard Pikuła, Mirosław Smugała

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exploitation of recreation horses horse in the summer season on the selenium concentration in serum and the values of chosen haematological parameters. Blood to analyse was sampled from horses used in recreation in two horse riding centres located in the Western Pomeranian Province. Stable 1 (8 horses), situated in a seaside resort, with rides being led mostly in a riding arena, less often in the field. Large rotation of riders with different level of riding advancement has been observed, with prevalence of novice riders and horses working on the lunge. Stable 2 (18 horses), situated in a rural area, far away from large cities; in the holiday season, horses work maximum 4 hours a day, with prevalence of rides of weak and moderate intensity, being led in the field, with riders with average and high level of riding advancement and small rotation of riders. Blood samples were drawn twice: in the first days of July (start of the holiday season) and in the last days of August (end of the holiday season). Average selenium concentration in the blood serum of horses in Stable 1 decreased significantly during the holiday season. Mean values of chosen analysed haematological parameters of the horses in both riding centres did not undergo any significant changes during their use in the holiday season. Significant increase in the leukocyte and platelet counts after the holiday season was observed in the blood of horses in Stable 1. The horses of Stable 2 were characterised by significantly higher mean haematocrit value (39.14%) when compared to those in Stable 1. No significant correlations were found between the Se concentrations and chosen haematological parameters. The observations being carried out confirm the occurrence of Se deficiencies in horses in the Western Pomerania. As it appears from the performed study, intensive recreational horse use (5-6 hours of work per day) affects the significant decrease in serum selenium concentration, which suggests that application of appropriate supplementation in the nutrition of intensively working horses is necessary. Insufficient number of studies and ambiguous results concerning the effect of horse use on the WBC and the platelet counts prompt to undertake more broader observations in this respect.

### Performance of young boars depending on the litter size

Maria Kawęcka, Eugenia Jacyno, Beata Matysiak, Anita Kołodziej-Skalska, Marian Kamyczek

Abstract. The material consisted of 60 hybrid boars, from line 990 (female) and Pietrain breeds (male), divided into two groups depending on the litter size in which they were born and reared - group: 7-10 piglets (average 8.8) per litter; group: 11-17 piglets (average 12.5) per litter. The mean body weight of 21 day of live piglets born and reared in larger litters was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than among boars reared in smaller litters. This difference gradually diminished and at day 63 of life both groups had the same average body weight. In the period from 63 to 180 day of life, the boars from smaller litters had a slightly lower rate of growth (statistically insignificant). Boars reared in larger litters at 180 day of life were on average 3 kg heavier. There were no significant differences in fat thickness, lean meat and testicular volume between the assessed groups of young boars. From boars reared in smaller litters ejaculates had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) sperm concentration and total sperm volume.

### Estimation of mink farming efficiency in Poland on an example of production performance of a particular farm

Ewelina Konopka, Dorota Kołodziejczyk, Stanisław Socha

Abstract. The aim of the study was to estimate the effectiveness of mink farming in Poland on the basis of pelt production and auction sales results of an exemplary mink farm located in Western Pomerania, Poland. The analyzes covered the period 2006-2009 (seasons 2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009). The economic analysis covered the revenues and expenses of the farm. The analysis of revenues included the sales of both breeding material and pelts. Pelt sales results were based on the reports of two auction houses: Finnish Fur Sales and North American Fur Auctions. We applied the system of cost accounting by type, which distinguishes two types of costs, direct and indirect costs. The economic efficiency of the farm was assessed basing on economic indices and the farm reproductive performance. The aim of Polish mink farms is breeding animals for pelts. Feed costs and salaries are the most important items in terms of the total cost of pelt production. The income per pelt heavily depends on the costs incurred for its production. Reproductive performance of mink is also a significant factor of the profitability of the farm. Analysis of the farm economic performance indicators showed a very high level of remunerativeness index (144.2-227.3%). The results of our study imply a high profitability of the farm, since the profitability index ranged between 44.2% and 127.3%. The analysis of farming efficiency reveals its strong dependence on the current fur markets condition (fashion trends) and the level of animal husbandry on the farm.

### Analysis of the number of cow visits to the milking robot

Honorata Kozłowska, Anna Sawa, Wojciech Neja

Abstract. Based on data obtained using T4C herd management software from three farms equipped with milking robots, analysis was made of the effect of herd, age of cows, stage of lactation and milk production level on the number of visits to the milking robot and the proportion of different numbers of these visits. GLM and FREQ procedures of the SAS package were used for statistical analysis. The visits ended with 3.0 milkings and 2.6 refusals on average. The number of visits ending with milking decreased with advancing age and lactation, and increased with increasing milk production level. Among primiparous cows, 48% of the cows milked 3 times and 28% of the cows milked 4 times a day. Among multiparas, most cows milked 3 times (39%) and 2 times a day (37%). Most of late lactation cows (56%) milked twice, and in the other groups three times daily milking formed the largest proportion (around 45%). Considerable differences were found in the milking frequency depending on milk production level: among lowest yielding cows (≤ 20 kg milk) as much as 58% milked twice, and among highest yielding cows (≥ 50.1 kg milk) as much as 55% milked four times. The relatively high proportion of 5 refusals among the highest yielding cows (18%) and also among cows until 251 days of lactation (23-33%) should direct breeders’ attention to the proper balancing of diets for these cows.

### Comparison of the nutritional value and technological suitability of milk of Holstein-Friesian cows from Poland and imported from Sweden and Germany

Beata Kuczyńska, Kamila Puppel, Marcin Gołębiewski, Małgorzata Szewczuk

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the origin of Holstein-Friesian cows on the yield, concentration of protein fraction components and selected technological parameters of cow’s milk. The fifty Holstein-Friesian cows from Poland, Sweden and Germany were involved in the experiment. The analysis of milk, protein and fat yield showed advantage of cows from Poland over those imported from Sweden and Germany. On the other hand, the most advantageous protein/fat ratio was found in the milk of Swedish cows. The analysis of the selected technological parameters of milk including the country of origin of cows revealed that the milk from Polish cows was characterized by a higher content of casein, dry matter and solids-not-fat than imported cows. The highest concentration of β-lactoglobulin and bovine albumin serum was observed in the milk of Swedish cows, whereas the milk from Polish cows was characterized by the highest level of α-lactoalbumin, lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase. The results of this study show that only the introduction of animals with high genetic potential can bring financial benefits expected from the sale of raw milk. Origin of animals plays an important role in determining of whey protein fraction and technological usefulness of milk.

### Age changes of fructose and citric acid levels as well as hyaluronidase activity in the epididymal secretion and vesicular glands of the Podolsky plant type bulls of the Ukrainian black-dappled dairy breed

Nikolay Pavlyuk, Stakh Vovk

Abstract. This study presents data on the age changes of hyaluronidase activity in epididymal secretion as well as the presence of fructose and citric acid in vesicular glands (glandulae vesiculares) secretion. The results of age changes in the amount of epididymal secretion and its spermatozoa concentration in the Podolsky plant type bulls of the Ukrainian black-dappled dairy breed are also given. The research was conducted on 54 individuals, aged 1--13 months. It was found that fructose and citric acid in vesicular glands secretion as well as hyaluronidase activity and mature spermatozoa in epididymal secretion emerge for the first time in 5-month-old bulls. The highest concentrations of fructose (742 ±63 mg/per cent) and citric acid (914 ±81 mg/per cent) in vesicular glands secretion and the highest hyaluronidase activity (1.6 thousand units) in epididymal secretion were found in 12-month-old bulls. A strong positive correlation between hyaluronidase activity and spermatozoa concentration in epididymal secretion was also observed.

### Impact of probiotics on numbers of lactic acid rods producing hydrogen peroxide isolated from mouths of dairy cattle

Marek Selwet, Mariola Galbas, Filip Porzucek, Małgorzata Pociejowska, Tomasz Cłapa

Abstract. The investigations were conducted on 60 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (at age 3 year and weight 590 kg) kept in tie-stall barn. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 20 heads each. The control group (K) was fed diets without probiotics, group (EM) -- was fed diet with the addition of EM probiotic (dose of 150 ml ⋅ t-1 TMR) and group (T) -- was fed diet with the addition of ToyoCerin probiotic (dose of 0.2 kg ⋅ t-1 TMR). The volume of 2--10 cm$^3$ saliva was collected from each animal in which the following parameters were determined: number of lactic acid rods from the Lactobacillus genus, number of rods capable of producing hydrogen peroxide. For purpose of precise diagnostics, lactic acid rods were identified on the basis of biochemical traits employing API 50 CHL (BioMérieux), while those manufacturing H2O2 were additionally tested using PCR method. The occurrence of Lactobacillus spp. rods was confirmed in all the examined individuals and in each and every experimental combination. Lactobacillus spp. rods capable of produce hydrogen peroxide were isolated in 17 cows in group K, in 3 individuals in group EM and in 13 animals in group T. EM probiotic strongly significantly restrict the development of Lactobacillus spp. strains are capable to produce hydrogen peroxide.

### The analysis of the course of early localized Lyme disease among patients of the infectious diseases clinic in Szczecin

Magdalena Witak-Jędra, Jolanta Niścigorska-Olsen, Agnieszka Kotowicz-Laurans, Miłosz Parczewski

Abstract. Lyme disease (also known as borreliosis) is defined as an infectious disease caused by a spirochete called Borrelia burgdorferi. It occurs in three stages: early localized infection, early disseminated infection and late persistent infections that affect many organs. In order to assess the clinical course, including the transition to the late persistent infection stage, medical records of a group of 175 patients, who reported at the Infectious Disease Clinic in Szczecin after treating chronic erythema in 2004, were analyzed. Clinical symptoms, presence of serological exponents and frequency of transition into the late persistent infection stage were assessed. In majority of the observed patients, the infection was limited to erythema migrans. Average time, in which serological negativization in the IgM class occurred was 13.2 months, 15 people throughout the observation time showed the presence of antibodies in the IgM class, which were not associated with clinical exponents of the disease. In 8 patients (4.6%) the infection turned into a chronic-arthral form. Lyme borreliosis, when properly treated and taken care of in the first stage, rarely becomes a chronic disease.
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Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica 12(3) 2013

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