Research Article

Effectiveness of using diets containing yellow lupine cultivar Mister in growing pigs

Alina Janocha , Anna Milczarek  , Marcin Lipka

Institute of Animal Science and Fisheries, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, B. Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland

Abstract. The paper aimed at evaluating the effect of yellow lupine used in feed rations for growing pigs on the animals’ growth parameters and slaughter value. The experiment involved 40 pigs [(PLW×PL)×Duroc] which were divided into 2 groups: control (C) and experimental (E). The sole source of protein in rations fed to the control pigs was soybean meal, whereas rations for the experimental pigs contained respectively 10, 15 and 20% of lupine in the corresponding periods: grower, fattener I and II. The inclusion of lupine in feed rations for weaner pigs and fatteners during period I did not affect the production performance, whereas for fatteners during period II it did increase (P ≤ 0.05) daily weight gain values. Slaughter value was similar for the compared groups of pigs (P>0.05). To sum up, an inclusion of 10, 15 and 20% lupine in feed rations for pigs can be recommended due to a significant increase in the final body weight and simultaneously increased feed conversion effectiveness. In addition, the feeding pattern did not affect the muscularity and fattening grade of pigs.

Keywords: Lupinus luteus, nutrition, fatteners, performance results, slaughter value

INTRODUCTION

Rational feeding of swine is a significant environmental factor that not only has an influence on the fattening results but also, in addition to genetic factors, is a main determinant of the quantity and quality of meat [Zralý et al. 2006Zralý, Z., Pisařiková, B., Trčková, M., Herzig, I., Jůzl, M., Simeonovová, J. (2006). Effect of lupine and amaranth on growth efficiency, health and carcass characteristics and meat quality of market pigs. Acta Vet. Brno, 75(3), 363–372. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200675030363, Turyk et al. 2011Turyk, Z., Osek, M., Janocha, A., Olkowski, B. (2011). Feeding diets based on barley or triticale during fattening of high-meat PIC pigs: effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters. Acta Vet. Beograd, 61(1), 67–75. https://doi.org/10.2298/AVB1101067T, Sońta et al. 2015Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2015). Efektywność stosowania mieszanek z udziałem łubinu wąskolistnego w żywieniu rosnących świń [Effectiveness of the use of mixtures containing narrow-leafed lupin in the diet of growing pigs]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 11, 35–46 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Milczarek and Osek 2016Milczarek, A., Osek, M. (2016). Partial replacement of soya bean with low-tannin faba bean varieties (Albus or Amulet): effects on growth traits, slaughtering parameters and meat quality of Pulawska pigs. Ann. Anim. Sci., 16(2), 477–487. https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2015-0076, Debrecéni et al. 2018Debrecéni, O., Lípová, P., Bučko, O., Cebulska, A., Kapelánski, W. (2018). Effect of pig genotypes from Slovak and Polish breeds on meat quality. Arch. Anim. Breed., 61, 99–107. https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-61-99-2018]. The base protein feed used in pigs’ nutrition is soybean meal, but due to its high price and limitations on the use of animal meals new sources of protein are sought after [Sobotka et al. 2012Sobotka, W., Pomianowski, J., Wójcik, A. (2012). Wpływ zastosowania genetycznie zmodyfikowanej poekstrakcyjnej śruty sojowej oraz poekstrakcyjnej śruty rzepakowej ,,00'' na efekty tuczu, właściwości technologiczne i sensoryczne mięsa świń [Effect of genetically modified soybean and ``00'' rapeseed meals on pig fattening performance and technological and sensory properties of pig meat]. Żywność. Nauka. Technol. Jakość, 80(1), 106–115 [in Polish]. https://doi.org/10.15193/zntj/2012/80/106-115, Milczarek and Osek 2014Milczarek, A., Osek, M. (2014). Effectiveness of using faba bean seeds and corn distillers grains with solubles as a partial replacement of soybean meal in the feeding of pulawska pigs. Acta. Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 13(4), 55–66. Google Scholar, Sońta et al. 2016Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2016). Efektywność tuczu świń mieszankami z udziałem łubinu żółtego (Lupinus luteus) [The efficiency of fattening pigs with mixtures containing yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus)]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 12, 9–18 [in Polish]. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.6965]. One of them is the production of legumes covering 25% of the feed protein requirement of monogastric animals [Kasprowicz-Potocka et al. 2013Kasprowicz-Potocka, M., Chilomer, K., Zaworska, A., Nowak, W., Frankie­wicz, A. (2013). The effect of feeding raw and germinated Lupinus luteus and Lupinus an­gustifolius seeds on the growth performance of young pigs. J. Anim. Feed. Sci., 22, 112–121. https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/66001/2013]. The use of species and cultivars of such plants is fostered by breeding progress and implementation of new improvement technologies that contribute to advantageous changes in the nutritional value and suitability due to a considerable reduction in the level of anti-nutrients. The suitability of legumes for pigs’ nutrition was confirmed by numerous studies [Pisařiková et al. 2008Pisařiková, B., Zralý, Z., Buňnky, Z., Trčková, M. (2008). Nutritional value of white lupine cultivar Butan in diets for fattening pigs. Vet. Med.-Czech., 53, 124–134. https://doi.org/10.17221/1943-VETMED, Kim et al. 2012Kim, J.C., Heo, J.M., Mullan, B.P., Pluske, J.R. (2012). Performance and intestinal re­sponses to dehulling and inclusion level of Australian sweet lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) in diets for weaner pigs. Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech., 172 (3-4), 201–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.01.002, Hanczakowska and Księżak 2012Hanczakowska, E., Księżak, J. (2012). Krajowe źródła białkowych pasz roślinnych jako zamienniki śruty sojowej GMO w żywieniu świń [Domestic sources of plant protein feeds as replacements of GM soybean meal in pig nutrition]. Rocz. Nauk. Zoot., 39(2), 171–187 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Milczarek and Osek 2016Milczarek, A., Osek, M. (2016). Partial replacement of soya bean with low-tannin faba bean varieties (Albus or Amulet): effects on growth traits, slaughtering parameters and meat quality of Pulawska pigs. Ann. Anim. Sci., 16(2), 477–487. https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2015-0076]. Purwin and Stanek [2011]Purwin, C., Stanek, M. (2011). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance.in growing-finishing pigs fed legume-based diet. Annales UMCS Sectio EE 29: 52-61. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10083-011-0011-8, in evaluating the digestibility of legume seeds in the diets of growing pigs, found that the most digestible rations contained yellow lupine. Breeding progress with reference to the plant and animal material and varied opinions [Kim et al. 2008Kim, J., Pluske, J., Mullan, B. (2008). Nutritive value of yellow lupins (Lupinus luteus L.) for weaner pigs. Aust. J. Exp. Agr., 48(9), 1225–1231. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA07288, Hanczakowska and Świątkiewicz 2014Hanczakowska, E., Świątkiewicz, M. (2014). Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as replacers of soybean meal in feed for fattening pigs. Ann. Anim. Sci., 14(4), 921–394. https://doi.org/10.2478/aoas-2014-0068, Sońta et al. 2016Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2016). Efektywność tuczu świń mieszankami z udziałem łubinu żółtego (Lupinus luteus) [The efficiency of fattening pigs with mixtures containing yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus)]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 12, 9–18 [in Polish]. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.6965] about the suitability of yellow lupine for pigs’ nutrition provided the grounds for studies.

Table 1. Composition and nutritive value of weaner pig rations
Tabela 1. Skład surowcowy i wartość pokarmowa mieszanek dla warchlaków

Item – Wyszczególnienie

Rations – Diety

control (C) – kontrolna (K)

experimental (E) – doświadczalna (D)

Wheat – Pszenica

30.00

30.00

Barley – Jęczmień

23.70

22.70

Maize – Kukurydza

20.00

20.00

Soybean meal – Śruta poekstrakcyjna sojowa

21.00

12.00

Yellow lupine cv. “Mister” – Łubin żółty odmiany „Mister”

10.00

Rapeseed oil – Olej rzepakowy

1.00

1.00

Premix grower1 – Premiks grower1

4.00

4.00

Acidifier – Zakwaszacz

0.30

0.30

Total – Razem

100.00

100.00

Calculated nutritive value per 1 kg of diets – Wyliczona wartość pokarmowa 1 kg mieszanki

Metalizable energy, MJ – Energia metaboliczna, MJ

13.14

13.27

Crude protein, g/MJ – Białko ogólne, g/MJ

12.98

13.03

Lys, g/MJ

0.99

1.06

Crude fibre, g – Włókno surowe, g

32.7

43.2

Ca, g

8.0

8.0

P, g

6.0

6.0

Na, g

1.7

1.7

Analyzed nutrients per 1 kg of diets – Oznaczona zawartość składników w 1 kg mieszanki

Dry matter, % – Sucha masa, %

89.18

91.11

Crude ash, % – Popiół surowy, %

4.67

4.70

Crude protein, % – Białko ogólne, %

17.03

16.98

Crude fat, % – Tłuszcz surowy, %

2.21

2.49

Crude fibre, % – Włókno surowe, %

3.72

4.38

1 1 kg premix grower contained: vitamins A – 505000 IU, D3 – 50000 IU, E – 2500 mg, K3 – 100 mg, B1 – 80 mg, B2 – 200 mg, PP – 1000 mg, B5 – 625 mg, B6 – 130 mg, B12 – 1000 µg, H – 6200 µg, B4 – 16000 mg, C – 3750 mg, B9 – 38 mg; microelements: Fe – 2500 mg, Mn – 1500 mg, Zn – 3750 mg, Cu – 4125 mg, I – 26 mg, Se – 10 mg, macroelements: Ca – 172 g, P – 30 g, Mg – 12 g, Na – 50 g, amino acids: lysine – 120 g, methionine – 45 g, threonine – 50 g, enzymes: phytase, beta-xylanase, beta-glucanase, antioxidant.
1 1 kg premiksu grower zawierał: witaminy A – 505000 IU, D3 – 50000 IU, E – 2500 mg, K3 – 100 mg, B1 – 80 mg, B2 – 200 mg, PP – 1000 mg, B5 – 625 mg, B6 – 130 mg, B12 – 1000 µg, H – 6200 µg, B4 – 16000 mg, C – 3750 mg, B9 – 38 mg; mikroelementy: Fe – 2500 mg, Mn – 1500 mg, Zn – 3750 mg, Cu – 4125 mg, I – 26 mg, Se – 10 mg, makroelementy: Ca – 172 g, P – 30 g, Mg – 12 g, Na – 50 g, aminokwasy: lizyna – 120g, metionina – 45 g, treonina – 50 g, enzymy: fitaza, beta-ksylanaza, beta-glukanaza, przeciwutleniacz.

The paper aimed at evaluating the effect of yellow lupine cultivar Mister used in feed rations for growing pigs on the animals’ growth parameters and slaughter value.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The experimental material was 40 weaners, 3-breed cross-breeds: \female (PWL×PL)×\male Duroc, with the initial body weight of approx. 20 kg. The animals were weighed one by one, marked for identification and divided into 2 equipotent groups: control (C) and experimental (E) one. The pigs (sex ratio 1 : 1) from both groups were stocked in pens with slatted floors, keeping conditions according to Ordinance of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development [Journal of Laws 2010Journal of Laws (2010). Rozporządzenie Ministra Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi [Ordinance of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development]. Journal of Laws. No. 56, item 344, 15 February 2010. Available at: Google Scholar]. All animals were fed ad libitum with bulk rations prepared according to Feeding recommendations and the nutritional value of feeds for pigs [2015]. During the 23-day weaner pigs period both groups (C and E) received rations containing identical cereal feed materials, soybean meal, oil and mineral and vitamin additives; however, in the ration for experimental pigs the protein was partly substituted by protein from the Mister cultivar of yellow lupine (Table 1).

Next, during the 2-stage fattening period consisting of: the first stage, 53 days, and the second stage, 30 days, the only protein component in the rations for control pigs was soybean meal, whereas in experimental pigs the soybean meal was partly substituted by 15% and 20% of yellow lupine cultivar Mister respectively at the first and the second stage of fattening (Table 2).

Table 2. Composition and nutritive value of fattener rations
Tabela 2. Skład surowcowy i wartość pokarmowa mieszanek paszowych dla tuczników

Item – Wyszczególnienie

Rations – Diety

I period – I okres

II period – II okres

C

E

C

E

Triticale – Pszenżyto

27.50

27.50

32.00

32.00

Barley – Jęczmień

25.80

23.80

25.80

20.80

Oats – Owies

15.00

14.00

15.00

14.00

Maize – Kukurydza

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

Soybean meal – Śruta poekstrakcyjna sojowa

18.00

6.00

14.00

Yellow lupine cv. “Mister” – Łubin żółty odmiany „Mister”

15.00

20.00

Rapeseed oil – Olej rzepakowy

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Premix “phase one”1 – Premiks „I okres”1

3.00

3.00

Premix “phase two”1 – Premiks „II okres”1

2.50

2.50

Acidifier – Zakwaszacz

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

Total – Razem

100

100

100

100

Calculated nutritive value per 1 kg of diets
Wyliczona wartość pokarmowa 1 kg mieszanki

Metalizable energy, MJ
Energia metaboliczna, MJ

12.70

12.89

12.49

12.50

Crude protein, g ∙MJ–1 – Białko ogólne, g ∙MJ–1

12.85

12.87

11.98

11.85

Lys, g ∙MJ–1

0.95

0.98

0.64

0.63

Crude fibre, g – Włókno surowe, g

41.5

38.6

42.1

42.1

Ca, g

6.8

6.7

5.6

5.6

P, g

5.3

5.4

5.0

5.0

Na, g

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.7

Analyzed nutrients per 1 kg of diets
Oznaczona zawartość składników w 1 kg mieszanki

Dry matter, % – Sucha masa, %

89.28

89.05

88.66

88.94

Crude ash, % – Popiół surowy, %

4.23

3.66

4.15

4.07

Crude protein, % – Białko ogólne, %

16.28

16.66

15.09

15.51

Crude fat, % – Tłuszcz surowy, %

2.59

2.41

2.06

2.37

Crude fibre, % – Włókno surowe, %

4.47

5.11

4.11

4.87

1 1 kg premix “phase one”/”phase two” contained: vitamins A – 300000/300000 IU, D3 – 66667/6500 IU, E – 2500/2500 mg, K3 – 90/90 mg, B1 – 40/40 mg, B2 – 170/170 mg, PP – 1000/1000 mg, B5 – 700/700 mg, B6 – 50/50 mg, B12 – 900/900 µg, H – 2700/2700 µg, B4 – 7500/7500 mg, microelements: Fe – 2800/2600 mg, Mn – 1000/1000 mg, Zn – 4000/4000 mg, Cu – 800/840 mg, I – 20/20 mg, Se – 1010 mg, macroelements: Ca – 182/177g, P – 35/30 g, Mg – 20/20 g, Na – 56/58 g, amino acids: lysine – 100/120g, methionine – 16/14 g, threonine – 40/34 g, enzymes: phytase, beta-xylanase, beta-glucanase, antioxidant.
1 1 kg premiks „I okres”/„II okres” zawierał: witaminy A – 300000/300000 IU, D3 – 66667/6500 IU, E – 2500/2500 mg, K3 – 90/90 mg, B1 – 40/40 mg, B2 – 170/170 mg, PP – 1000/1000 mg, B5 – 700/700 mg, B6 – 50/50 mg, B12 – 900/900 µg, H – 2700/2700 µg, B4 – 7500/7500 mg, mikroelementy: Fe – 2800/2600 mg, Mn – 1000/1000 mg, Zn – 4000/4000 mg, Cu – 800/840 mg, I – 20/20 mg, Se – 1010 mg, makroelementy: Ca – 182/177 g, P – 35/30 g, Mg – 20/20 g, Na – 56/58 g, aminokwasy: lizyna – 100/120 g, metionina – 16/14 g, treonina – 40/34 g, enzymy: fitaza, beta-ksylanaza, beta-glukanaza, przeciwutleniacz.

The seeds of yellow lupine Mister and the feed rations underwent chemical analyses measuring the content of: dry mass (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF) and crude ash (CA) according to AOAC [2011]AOAC (2011). Official Methods of Analysis. In: Horwitz W. (Ed.), 18th ed. AOAC International. Gaithersburg, MD, USA. Google Scholar. The analyses were carried out in 3 replications. The amount of nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) was calculated from the formula:

$$NFE = DM - (CP + CA + CF + EE)$$

During the experiment the individual body weight of pigs was checked (on the experiment start day, after the rearing of weaners, after the grower and fattener stage) along with the intake of feed rations in respective periods and the animals’ health status. Based on the results the body weight gain was calculated together with the conversion of feed and nutrients per body weight gain unit.

After fattening the animals were transported to a specialist slaughterhouse. Following a pre-slaughter rest and stunning, they were slaughtered in compliance with procedures applicable in the slaughterhouse. On the process line the half-carcasses were weighed using electronic scales and their muscularity and fattening grade were measured using an ultrasonic apparatus (Ultra-FOM 300, SFK-Technology, Herlev, Denmark). Backfat thickness and the height of longissimus dorsi muscle (MLD) as well as meatiness were measured between rib 3 and 4 at a distance of 7 cm from the half-carcass cutting line [Borzuta 2002Borzuta, K. (2002). Nowoczesne metody klasyfikacji tusz wieprzowych [Modern classification methods of pig carcasses]. Med. Weter., 58(1), 26–29 [in Polish]. Google Scholar].

The results were elaborated by statistical methods using one-way analysis of variance, according to the following mathematical model: $$Y_{ik}=\mu + a_i + e_{ik}$$

where:

    \( Y_{ik} \) – trait level,

    \( \mu \) – total mean,

    \( a_i \) – effect of treatment,

    \( e_{ik} \) – error.

The significance of differences between mean values was verified using t-Student test at the significance level α = 0.05. The results were elaborated using STATISTICA PL 13.1 software [StatSoft Inc. 2019StatSoft Inc. (2019). STATISTICA PL (data analysis software system). Version 13.1 StatSoft Inc. Google Scholar].

RESULTS

The evaluated seeds of yellow lupine cultivar Mister contained 88.91% dry matter, 3.83% crude ash, 41.3% crude protein, 15.03% crude fibre and 3.1% crude fat. The calculated percentage of nitrogen-free extractives was 25.65%.

After 23 days of weaner rearing, no significant effect of inclusion of yellow lupine in feed rations on body weight gain was identified (Table 3).

Table 3. Rearing results of weaner pigs
Tabela 3. Wyniki odchowu warchlaków

Item – Wyszczególnienie

Group – Grupa

SEM1

P value
Wartość P

C

E

Initial body weight, kg – Początkowa masa ciała, kg

19.63

20.80

0.691

0.402

Final body weight, kg – Końcowa masa ciała, kg

35.95

37.30

0.908

0.464

Total gain, kg – Przyrost ogółem, kg

16.32

16.50

0.390

0.826

Daily gain, g – Przyrost dobowy, g

709

717

17.001

0.825

Total feed intake, kg – Spożycie paszy ogółem, kg

679.5

742.0

Feed intake per head, kg – Spożycie paszy na sztukę, kg

33.97

37.10

Feed conversion ratio, kg – Zużycie paszy, kg

2.08

2.25

Crude protein conversion ratio, g
Zużycie białka ogólnego, g

353

389

Metaboilzable energy conversion ratio, MJ
Zużycie energii metabolicznej, MJ

27.33

29.85

1 SEM – standard error of the mean.
1 SEM – błąd standardowy średniej.

Table 4. Fattening results
Tabela 4. Wyniki tuczu

Item – Wyszczególnienie

Group – Grupa

SEM1

P value
Wartość P

C

E

Body weight – Masa ciała, kg

Initial – Początkowa

35.95

37.30

0.908

0.402

After I period – Po I okresie

82.62

85.72

0.885

0.079

After II period – Po II okresie

111*

116*

0.933

0.035

Daily gain, g – Przyrost dobowy, g

I period – I okres

881

911

13.416

0.225

II period – II okres

947*

1013*

14.556

0.012

Whole fattening – Cały tucz

904*

948*

11.156

0.017

Feed intake per head, kg – Spożycie paszy, kg

I period – I okres

127.25

128.25

II period – II okres

93.60

98.80

Whole fattening – Cały tucz

220.85

227.05

Feed conversion ratio, kg – Zużycie paszy, kg

I period – I okres

2.72

2.65

II period – II okres

3.29

3.25

Whole fattening – Cały tucz

2.94

2.88

Crude protein conversion ratio, g – Zużycie białka ogólnego, g

I period – I okres

444

426

II period – II okres

493

481

Whole fattening – Cały tucz

463

448

Metabolizable energy conversion ratio, MJ – Zużycie energii metabolicznej, MJ

I period – I okres

34.54

34.16

II period – II okres

41.09

40.62

whole fattening – cały tucz

37.11

36.70

1 SEM – standard error of the mean; *P ≤ 0.05.
1 SEM – błąd standardowy średniej; *P ≤ 0,05.





Pigs from group E showed a higher body weight (by 1.35 kg) and higher feed intake (by approx. 9%) in comparison to animals fed with feed rations containing soybean meal as the sole protein feed. Throughout the rearing period, weaners receiving control rations converted less feed (2.08 kg), crude protein (353 g) and metabolic energy (27.33 MJ) compared to experimental pigs fed with rations containing a 10% share of yellow lupine (2.25 kg, 389 g, 29.85 MJ).

The effectiveness of 2-stage fattening was determined based on the weight gain of animals and the conversion of feed and nutrients per 1 kg of body weight (Table 4).

After 53 days of the I stage of fattening, pigs fed with rations containing a 15% share of yellow lupine showed a body weight about 3.7% higher than control pigs receiving rations with soybean meal as the only protein-rich feed. However, the differences were not confirmed statistically. On the other hand, after the second fattening period, pigs fed rations containing a 20% share of yellow lupine had a significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) final body weight (116 vs 111 kg) in comparison to control pigs. The higher final body weight of pigs from group E was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) related to higher (by approx. 7%) daily weight gain values in that period. Higher feed intake both at respective growing stages and throughout the whole period was characteristic of pigs from the experimental group, but they more effectively converted the feed and nutrients (crude protein and metabolic energy) per body weight gain unit.

No effect of the nutrition pattern used on the slaughter performance of pigs was observed (Table 5).

Table 5. Slaughter value of pigs
Tabela 5. Wartość rzeźna świń

Item – Wyszczególnienie

Group – Grupa

SEM1

P value
Wartość P

C

E

Body weight before slaughter, kg – Masa ciała przed ubojem, kg

111*

116*

0.993

0.035

Hot carcass weight, kg – Masa tuszy ciepłej, kg

88.40

91.10

1.178

0.267

Dressing percentage, % – Wydajność rzeźna, %

79.69

78.78

0.391

0.409

Meatiness, % – Mięsność, %

59.2

59.2

0.322

0.994

EUROP classification, heads – Klasyfikacja EUROP, sztuki

S

9

3

E

10

17

U

1

0

Length of longissimus dorsi muscle, mm
Wysokość mięśnia longissimus dorsi, mm

67.7

69.9

1.064

0.307

Backfat thickness, mm – Grubość słoniny, mm

14.7

14.9

0.472

0.795

1 SEM – standard error of the mean.
1 SEM – błąd standardowy średniej.
* P ≤ 0.05.

The dressing percentage of control growing pigs was 79.69% compared to 78.78% in the experimental group (a difference of about 0.91 percentage point to the disadvantage of the group fed rations containing yellow lupine) The level of meatiness of evaluated pigs in both groups was identical (59.2%) despite the carcasses being classified differently according to EUROP. A higher (by 3.25%) eye of the longissimus dorsi muscle but also thicker (by 1.36%) backfat were characteristic of the carcasses of pigs fed with mixtures containing yellow lupine seeds.

DISCUSSION

The content of nutrients in lupine determined by this author did not differ from values given in the Feeding recommendations and the nutritional value of feeds for pigs [KIAPN 2015KIAPN (2015). Zalecenia żywieniowe i wartość pokarmowa pasz dla świń [Feeding recommendations and the nutritional value of feeds for pigs]. Eds. E.R. Grela, J. Skomiał. The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition PAS, Jabłonna, Poland [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. A higher (437 g/kg d.m.) level of crude protein and crude fat (42 g/kg d.m.) was found by Chilomer et al. [2013]Chilomer, K., Kasprowicz-Potocka, M,. Gulewicz, P., Frankiewicz, A. (2013). The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs., J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 97(4), 639–646. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01304.x. A lower (36.17%) content of crude protein in the seeds of the same cultivar was shown by Sońta et al. [2016]Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2016). Efektywność tuczu świń mieszankami z udziałem łubinu żółtego (Lupinus luteus) [The efficiency of fattening pigs with mixtures containing yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus)]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 12, 9–18 [in Polish]. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.6965. A significantly lower level of protein (277–342 g/kg d.m.) but more crude fat (32.8–55.3 g/kg d.m.) was determined in yellow lupine seeds by Musco et al. [2017]Musco, N., Cutrignelli, M.I., Calabro, S., Tudisco, R., Infascelli, F., Grazioli, R., Presti, V.Lo., Gresta, F., Chiofalo, B. (2017). Comparison of nutritional and antinutritional traits among different species (Lupinus albus L., Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus angustifolius L.) and varieties of lupin seeds. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 101(6), 1227–1241. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12643. In turn, Pisařiková and Zralý [2010]Pisařiková, B., Zralý, Z. (2010). Dietary fibre content in lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and soya (Glycine max L.) seeds. Acta Vet. Brno, 79, 211–216. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201079020211 report varied contents of crude protein (37.5–45.9% d.m.) and crude fat (4.1–6.2% d.m.) in yellow lupine.

A 10% inclusion of yellow lupine in feed rations for weaners had no influence on the rearing performance. Similarly, Prandini et al. [2005]Prandini, A., Morlacchini, M., Moschini, M., Fusconi, G., Masoero, F., Piva, G. (2005). Raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum) and lupin (Lupinus albus var. \emph{Multiitalia}) seeds as protein sources in weaned piglets' diets: effect on growth rate and blood parameters. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 4(4), 385–394. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2005.385 did not find any significant differences in feed conversion and daily weight gain of weaners after a 17% inclusion of lupine.

The lack of effect of a 15% inclusion of yellow lupine in feed rations for growing pigs at the first stage of fattening on the production performance confirms results obtained by Sońta et al. [2016]Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2016). Efektywność tuczu świń mieszankami z udziałem łubinu żółtego (Lupinus luteus) [The efficiency of fattening pigs with mixtures containing yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus)]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 12, 9–18 [in Polish]. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.6965. Similarly, Pisařiková et al. [2008]Pisařiková, B., Zralý, Z., Buňnky, Z., Trčková, M. (2008). Nutritional value of white lupine cultivar Butan in diets for fattening pigs. Vet. Med.-Czech., 53, 124–134. https://doi.org/10.17221/1943-VETMED substituting 50% or 100% of soybean meal with lupine seeds in pigs’ diets did not note any effect of the nutrition pattern used on the body weight and feed conversion. In turn, Roth-Maier et al. [2004]Roth-Maier, D.A., Böhmer, B.M., Roth, F.X. (2004). Effects of feeding canola meal and sweet lupin (\emph{L. luteus}, \emph{L. angustifolius}) in amino acid balanced diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Anim. Res., 53, 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2003048 using 20% of lupine in feed rations for growers showed improved body weight gain and increased feed conversion per body weight gain unit. In turn, Sońta et al. [2015]Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2015). Efektywność stosowania mieszanek z udziałem łubinu wąskolistnego w żywieniu rosnących świń [Effectiveness of the use of mixtures containing narrow-leafed lupin in the diet of growing pigs]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 11, 35–46 [in Polish]. Google Scholar including 5% of lupine in pigs’ diet noted smaller body weight gain (866 vs 959) while the conversion of feed increased simultaneously (2.37 vs 2.31).

An inclusion of a 20% share of lupine in feed rations for pigs at the second period fattening had a positive effect on body weight gain (P ≤ 0.05) and feed conversion ratio. On the other hand, Roth-Maier et al. [2004]Roth-Maier, D.A., Böhmer, B.M., Roth, F.X. (2004). Effects of feeding canola meal and sweet lupin (\emph{L. luteus}, \emph{L. angustifolius}) in amino acid balanced diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Anim. Res., 53, 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2003048 noted a reduction in body weight gain with increased feed conversion per weight gain unit after including the same amount of lupine in rations for fattening pigs. In turn, the lack of effect of 7.5% or 15% inclusion of lupine in feed rations for pigs on growing performance was demonstrated by Sońta et al. [2016]Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2016). Efektywność tuczu świń mieszankami z udziałem łubinu żółtego (Lupinus luteus) [The efficiency of fattening pigs with mixtures containing yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus)]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 12, 9–18 [in Polish]. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.6965.

Analysing fattening performance observed by those authors, it was found that pigs fed with rations containing yellow lupine had 4.5% higher body weight (P ≤ 0.05) while their feed and nutrients conversion ratio improved by about 2% In turn, Sońta et al. [2015]Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2015). Efektywność stosowania mieszanek z udziałem łubinu wąskolistnego w żywieniu rosnących świń [Effectiveness of the use of mixtures containing narrow-leafed lupin in the diet of growing pigs]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 11, 35–46 [in Polish]. Google Scholar using a 5% share of lupine in feed rations for pigs grown from body weight 27 to 113 kg showed a 2.5% weight loss with 2.6% improvement in feed conversion. The results of many scientific works [Zralý et al. 2006Zralý, Z., Pisařiková, B., Trčková, M., Herzig, I., Jůzl, M., Simeonovová, J. (2006). Effect of lupine and amaranth on growth efficiency, health and carcass characteristics and meat quality of market pigs. Acta Vet. Brno, 75(3), 363–372. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200675030363, 2007, Hanczakowska and Księżak, 2012, Sońta et al. 2016Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2016). Efektywność tuczu świń mieszankami z udziałem łubinu żółtego (Lupinus luteus) [The efficiency of fattening pigs with mixtures containing yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus)]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 12, 9–18 [in Polish]. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.6965] demonstrate that an inclusion of lupine not exceeding 20% generates advantageous production performance of growing pigs Van Nevel et al. [2000]Van Nevel, C., Seynaeve, M., Van de Voorde, G., De Smet, S., Van Driessche, E., De Wilde, R. (2000). Effects of increasing amounts of Lupinus albus seeds without or with whole egg powder in the diet of growing pigs on performance, Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 83(2), 89–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00125-X and King et al. [2000]King, R.H., Dunshea, F.R., Morrish, L., Eason, P.J., Van Barneveld, R.J., Mullan, B.P., Campbell, R.G. (2000). The energy value of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus albus for growing pigs. Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech., 83, 17–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00115-7 observed growth depression, lower feed intake and FCR reduction after 30% inclusion of lupine in a diet.

In the studies carried out by Roth-Maier et al. [2004]Roth-Maier, D.A., Böhmer, B.M., Roth, F.X. (2004). Effects of feeding canola meal and sweet lupin (\emph{L. luteus}, \emph{L. angustifolius}) in amino acid balanced diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Anim. Res., 53, 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2003048, the body weight of slaughtered animals was about 10 kg higher than that found by those authors and their carcasses showed a higher fattening grade (15.3–16.4 mm) and less meatiness (56.6–56.8%). Similar to the results of this study, Froidmont et al. [2005]Froidmont, E., Wathelet, B., Beckers, Y., Romneé, J.M., Dehareng, F., Wavreille, J., Schoeling, O., Decauwert, V., Bartiaux-Thill, N. (2005). Improvement of lupin seed valorisation by the pig with the addition of α-galactosidase in the feed and the choice of a suited variety. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc., 9(4), 225–235. Google Scholar observed lower dressing percentage when lupine seeds were included in a diet of two-breed fattening pigs (82.1 vs 82.6). Also, Zralý et al. [2006]Zralý, Z., Pisařiková, B., Trčková, M., Herzig, I., Jůzl, M., Simeonovová, J. (2006). Effect of lupine and amaranth on growth efficiency, health and carcass characteristics and meat quality of market pigs. Acta Vet. Brno, 75(3), 363–372. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200675030363 reported that animals from the experimental group fed with rations containing lupine, compared to the control group, showed lower dressing percentage and lower fattening grade and slightly higher meatiness. In another experiment [Zralý et al. 2007Zralý, Z., Trčková, M., Herzig, I., Jůzl, M., Simeonovová, J. (2007). The effect of white lupine on the performance, health, carcass characteristics and meat quality of market pigs. Veter. Medicina, 52(1), 29–41. https://doi.org/10.17221/2008-VETMED], fatteners (Large White×Landrace) fed with rations containing lupine seeds were characterised by a higher dressing percentage and lower fattening grade. Similarly, Sońta et al. [2016]Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2016). Efektywność tuczu świń mieszankami z udziałem łubinu żółtego (Lupinus luteus) [The efficiency of fattening pigs with mixtures containing yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus)]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 12, 9–18 [in Polish]. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.6965 noted that the fattening grade was 6.3% lower for pigs fed with rations containing lupine seeds than for control pigs.

Thanks to good and comparable meatiness of growing pigs from both groups, most carcasses were classified as class E in the EUROP system, which coincides with the results of Roth-Maier et al. [2004]Roth-Maier, D.A., Böhmer, B.M., Roth, F.X. (2004). Effects of feeding canola meal and sweet lupin (\emph{L. luteus}, \emph{L. angustifolius}) in amino acid balanced diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Anim. Res., 53, 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2003048 and Zralý et al. [2006, 2007]. On the other hand, Sońta et al. [2015]Sońta, M., Rekiel, A., Więcek, J. (2015). Efektywność stosowania mieszanek z udziałem łubinu wąskolistnego w żywieniu rosnących świń [Effectiveness of the use of mixtures containing narrow-leafed lupin in the diet of growing pigs]. Rocz. Nauk. PTZ, 11, 35–46 [in Polish]. Google Scholar found a significant share of carcasses in class S (70% in the control group and 60% in the experimental group).

CONCLUSION

To sum up, an inclusion of 10%, 15% and 20% yellow lupine seeds in feed rations for growing pigs can be recommended due to a significant increase in the final body weight and simultaneously increased feed conversion effectiveness. In addition, the feeding pattern did not affect the slaughter value, including their muscularity and fattening grade.

%\vfill

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This study was financed by the funds of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland (statutory research fund of the Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities No 373/14/S).

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This Article

Received: 16 Mar 2020

Accepted: 30 Apr 2020

Published online: 16 May 2020

Accesses: 180

How to cite

Janocha, A., Milczarek, A., Lipka, M., (2020). Effectiveness of using diets containing yellow lupine cultivar Mister in growing pigs. Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 19(1), 17–24. DOI: 10.21005/asp.2020.19.1.04.