Short communication

The growth of body mass and linear development of Simmental heifers of different constitution types in the Carpathian pre-mountain region

Vasyl Fedak , Stah Vovk  , Mykhailo Polulikh , Andriy Shelevach , Natalija Fedak , Olga Stadnitska

Institute of agriculture of the Carpathian region, Hrushevskoho street, 5, Obroshyno, Pustomyty district, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine

Abstract. The data about development of Simmental heifers of different constitution types in postnatal ontogenesis in Carpathian region are shown. By the growth of body weight and linear development, animals of high-fermenting type (research group) dominated counterparts of low-fermenting type (control group) by 7–9 %. It should be noted also, that animals in the control and experimental groups in postnatal ontogenesis were developed harmoniously. For body weight at 6, 12 and 18 months of age heifers of research group prevailed control counterparts respectively by 7.5; 8.5 and 5.7 %.

Keywords: heifers of breed, constitution type, postnatal development, body mass, body measurements, body structure indices

INTRODUCTION

To increase the production of high quality milk in the Carpathian region of Ukraine along with the breeding of black and white dairy cows and other perspective cow types we should breed Simmental cattle that gives dairy products of high value and, especially, cheese. It is known, that cheese from Simmental breed is the best in the world. Studies about constitutional features of combined Simmental breed in terms of Carpathian region were not conducted yet. Therefore, assessment of the constitution type of Simmental cattle in the conditions of Carpathian region has theoretical and practical importance yet [Zup et al. 2015Zup, V., Yashchuk, T., Vasyliv, A. (2015). Breeding situation in cattle breeding farms in Ternopil region and ways to improve it. Anim. Breeding and Genetics, 50, 112–118. Google Scholar]. As is known, the Constitution influences the structure of the body, as well as temperament and economic performance [Khmelnychyi 2007Khmelnychyi, L.M. (2007). Desirable exterior type of dairy cows [Bazhanyi eksteriernyi typ koriv molochnoi khudoby]. Rozvedennia i henetyka tvaryn, 41, 261–269 [in Ukrainian]. Google Scholar, Chernenko et al. 2016Chernenko, O.I., Chernenko, O.M., Dutka, V.R. (2016). Produktyvni ta tekhnolohichni yakosti koriv riznykh typiv konstytutsii. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten NDTs biobezpeky ta ekolohichnoho kontroliu resursiv APK, 4(1), 290–295 [in Ukrainian]. Google Scholar, Shcherbatyi et al. 2017Shcherbatyi, Z.I., Bodnar, P.V., Kropyvka, Y.H. (2017). Dairy productivity and reproductive capacity of Ukrainian black-and-white dairy cows of different types of constitution [Molochna produktyvnist ta vidtvorna zdatnist koriv ukrainskoi chorno-riaboi molochnoi porody riznykh typiv konstytutsii]. Naukovyi visnyk LNUVMBT, 19(74), 182–187 [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.15421/nvlvet7440, Karlova et al. 2019Karlova, L.V., Lesnovska, O.V., Deberina, I.V., Gavrilina, O.G. (2019). Productivity level of broad-bodied and narrow-bodied cattle. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(2) 136-143. Google Scholar]. According to a number of authors, the Constitution is passed by heredity [Milostiviy et al. 2017Milostiviy, R., Karlova, L., Sanzhara, R. (2017). Qualitative composition of milk of Holstein cows depending on the paratypic's and genetic factors. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 19 (82), 125–131. https://doi.org/10.15421/nvlvet8226, Karlova and Lesnovska 2017Karlova, L.V., Lesnovska, O.V. (2017). Adaptive capacity of first-borns with different duration of their embryonic development [Adaptacijna zdatnist pervistok iz riznoju trivalistju ih embrionalnogo rozvitku]. Agrarna nauka ta harchovi tehnologii: zbirnik naukovih prac Vinnickogo Nacionalnogo Agrarnogo Universitetu, 2(96), 172–179 [in Ukrainian]. Google Scholar].

Classical methods for the assessment of such constitution types by are widely used in scientific livestock practices. The aim of our study was to investigate the growth of body mass and linear development of Simmental heifers of different constitution types in Carpathian region.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Studies conducted by us on the Ukrainian black-motley dairy cattle of different origin allowed us to develop a new method of comprehensive assessment of the type of cattle constitution from a deduction of physiological-selective index [Fedak 2001Fedak, V. (2001). Methods of comprehensive assessment of the type of cattle constitution. Bulletin of Sumy NAU, Sumy, Spec. v, 178–181. Google Scholar, Fedak 2008Fedak, V. (2008). Prognostication of real volumes of milk and meat: it is advisable to evaluate cattle by the physiological selection index. Livestock Ukr., 1, 2–5. Google Scholar].

These methods can be used in cattle breeding, in selecting process by assessing cattle breeds, and genealogy groups. They can also be used in assessing the suitability of animal for meat and milk production.

The individuals with high values of index belong to the high-fermenting constitution type – with high growth intensity (for calves from 6 to 18 months), high milk production (cows of I, II and III lactations) and high body weight (for bull-sires 2 and 3 years old), while lower values of this indicators show, that animals have low intensity of growth, low milk production and body weight.

The constitution type of Simmental cattle was evaluated according to our physiological selection index [Fedak 2001Fedak, V. (2001). Methods of comprehensive assessment of the type of cattle constitution. Bulletin of Sumy NAU, Sumy, Spec. v, 178–181. Google Scholar, 2008]. The control group animals (n = 10) were of low-fermenting constitution type, while in research group (n = 10) respectively – high-fermenting constitution type. Terms of feeding and animal maintenance during the experiment were similar in both control and experimental groups [Bogdanov 2016Bogdanov, G. (2016). Agric. animal feeding. Kiev, Urojay, 285. Google Scholar]. The body weight growth, main body measurements and indexes of the body structure in both control and research group were estimated using methods developed by Siratskyj et al. [2001]Siratskyj, Y., Danylkiv, Y., Danylkiv, O. (2001). Dairy cows exterior: assessment and breeding perspectives. Kyiv, Science World, 146 p. Google Scholar.

Statistical analysis of obtained results was conducted according to classical methods in agricultural animal science [Plohinsky 1970Plohinsky, N. (1970). Biometry. Moscow, Science, 395 p. Google Scholar].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Live weight is one of the integral parameters characterizing animal organism, both exterior and interior. In this study aim was to investigate the growth of live weight gain and linear growth of heifers of different constitutional types of Simmental dairy beef.

The body weight growth of high-fermenting constitution type of heifers and low-fermenting their type is shown in Table 1, which shows that for the body weight in 6, 12 and 18 months of age heifers of research group prevailed control counterparts by 7.5; 8.5 and 5.7%. Similar relationships were shown by Barabash et al. [2002]Barabash, V.I., Hekkiiev, A.D., Tykhonova, L.V. (2002). Adaptation and productivity of cows of different types of constitution in the new region [Prystosovanist ta produktyvnist koriv riznykh typiv konstytutsii v novomu rehioni]. Suchasni problemy tvarynnytstva: zb. problemnykh dopovidei Instytutu tvarynnytstva tsentralnykh raioniv UAAN, Dnipropetrovsk, 18–20 [in Ukrainian]. Google Scholar.

Higher live weight resulted in higher average daily weight gain of the animals in the experimental group compared with control counterparts (Table 1).

Table 1. Body weight in simental heifers of different ages, kg
Tabela 1. Masa ciała u jałówek simental w różnym wieku, kg

Age, months
Wiek, miesiące

Groups, M ±m
Grupa, M ±m

±to control
±w porównaniu z kontrolną

Control
Kontrolna

Research
Doświadczalna

6

169.2 ±4.48

181.9 ±3.68***

+12.7

12

288.4 ±5.92

313.0 ±4.09***

+24.6

18

375.3 ±9.23

396.7 ±7.82**

+21.4

**P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.

At ages of 7–12 and 13–18 months heifers of research group prevailed control counterparts respectively by 9.97 and 6.08%. At ages 13–18 months average daily live weight gain of research group heifers prevailed control group analogues respectively by 3.87%. As we see from Table 2, in different age periods in control and experimental groups it was different intensity of weight gain of animals.

Table 2. The average daily weight gain of Simmental heifers cattle, g
Tabela 2. Średni dzienny przyrost masy ciała jałówek simental, g

Age, months
Wiek, miesiące

Groups, M ±m
Grupa, M ±m

±to control
±w porównaniu z kontrolną

Control
Kontrolna

Research
Doświadczalna

7 – 12

662 ±12.0

728 ±10.0

+66

13 – 18

483 ±14.0

465 ±11.0

–18

0 – 18

641 ±15.0

680 ±11.0

+39

This indicates a rhythmical growth of heifers' weight in postnatal ontogenesis. There is such a law: animals, that lag behind at certain ages, try to make up its development in later period when nutrition is improved, what actually occurs in animals of the control group aged 13–18 months. From birth to 18 months heifers of research group had gains of 680, and their control counterparts – respectively 641 grams.

Live weight not fully characterizes the development of animals, this figure is complemented by the measurements of the body articles, which assesses linear growth of individuals. To characterize linear growth, in livestock practice are used basic measurements, which in general can show in detail the development of the animals.

Main body measurements of experimental Simmental animals are shown in Table 3.

Table 3. The body measurements of Simmental heifers, cm
Tabela 3. Pomiary ciała jałówek simental, cm

Measurements – Pomiary

Groups, M ±m – Grupa, M ±m

±to control
±w porównaniu z kontrolną

Control – Kontrolna

Research – Doświadczalna

6 months – 6 miesięcy

Height – Wysokość

99.9 ±0.13

100.3 ±0.7*

+0.4

Height in buttocks – Wysokość w pośladkach

104.2 ±0.19

104.7 ±0.18**

+0.5

Chest depth – Głębokość klatki piersiowej

45.0 ±0.20

45.3 ±0.15

+0.3

Splay body length – Długość korpusu

103.9 ±0.17

104.8 ±0.18**

+0.9

Breast width in blades – Szerokość piersi w ostrzach

31.5 ±0.20

31.8 ±0.25

+0.3

Width in the hip joints – Szerokość w stawach biodrowych

31.6 ±0.21

31.8 ±0,24

+0.2

Width in clubs – Szerokość w klubach

33.7 ±0.30

34.5 ±0.31

+0.8

Circumference of the chest under the shoulder blades Obwód klatki piersiowej pod łopatkami

127.2 ±0.14

128.6 ±0.17**

+1.4

Circumference of metacarpus – Obwód śródręcza

14.6 ±0.11

14.8 ±0.12

+0.2

12 months – 12 miesięcy

Height – Wysokość

110.6 ±0.70

112.9 ±0.50**

+2.3

Height in buttocks – Wysokość w pośladkach

118.7 ±0.10

118.7 ±0.12

0

Chest depth – Głębokość klatki piersiowej

55.1 ±0.11

55.5 ±0.13

+0.4

Splay body length – Długość korpusu

121.9 ±0.18

123.5 ±0.20**

+1.6

Breast width in blades – Szerokość piersi w ostrzach

37.1 ±0.30

38.5 ±0.30**

+1.4

Width in the hip joints – Szerokość w stawach biodrowych

39.3 ±0.15

41.1 ±0.19***

+1.8

Width in clubs – Szerokość w klubach

39.8 ±0.13

40.9 ±0.18***

+1.1

Circumference of the chest under the shoulder blades Obwód klatki piersiowej pod łopatkami

156.7 ±0.25

159.3 ±0.30**

+2.6

Circumference of metacarpus – Obwód śródręcza

17.2 ±0.40

17.4 ±0.20

+0.2

18 months – 18 miesięcy

Height – Wysokość

119.0 ±0.30

120.8 ±0.35**

+1.8

Height in buttocks – Wysokość w pośladkach

125.5 ±0.20

127.8 ±0.30**

+2.3

Chest depth – Głębokość klatki piersiowej

61.6 ±0.40

61.6 ±0.20

0

Splay body length – Długość korpusu

133.3 ±0.40

135.8 ±0.41**

+2.5

Breast width in blades – Szerokość piersi w ostrzach

42.0 ±0.20

42.4 ±0.15

+0.4

Width in the hip joints – Szerokość w stawach biodrowych

45.3 ±0.17

45.6 ±0.18

+0.3

Width in clubs – Szerokość w klubach

44.0 ±0.44

44.0 ±0.50

0

Circumference of the chest under the shoulder blades Obwód klatki piersiowej pod łopatkami

172.5 ±0.30

173.1 ±0.20

+0.6

Circumference of metacarpus – Obwód śródręcza

18.3 ±0.17

18.9 ±0.18**

+0.6

*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.01.

Height at withers in heifers at 6, 12, 18 months prevailed control research group peers respectively by 0.40; 2.08; 1.50%. In the above mentioned ages similar pattern is noted by such indicator as the height in the buttocks. For breast deepness of heifers at 6 and 12 months the experimental group prevailed control peers respectively 0.67 and 0.72%. For the spit length of the trunk at all ages, research group animals prevailed their control counterparts by 1.49–1.78%.

Research heifers aged 6, 12, 18 months, for breast width in blades dominated control group respectively by 3.77; 0.95; 0.65%. A similar pattern is noted by such indicator as width in the hip joints. In the above listed periods of investigations by width in clubs animals of the experimental group prevailed control counterparts respectively by 2.76; 2.37; 2.76%.

Heifers of research group at 6, 12, 18 months for breast girth dominated control peers respectively by 0.94; 1.10; 1.66%.

Thus, by the main body articles, which characterize the exterior, in high-fermenting constitution type of animals (experimental group) in postnatal ontogenesis dominated analogues of low-fermenting type (control group).

The indexes of the body structure in postnatal ontogenesis evaluate the development of some articles of the body relative to the others. In our studies of these indicators we have not seen significant benefits of research groups animals over control counterparts (Table 4).

Table 4. Indices of body structure of Simmental heifers (6–12 months), %
Tabela 4. Indeksy budowy ciała jałówek simental (6–12 miesięcy), %

Indexes – Wskaźniki

Groups, M ±m – Grupa, M ±m

±to control
±w porównaniu z kontrolną

Control – Kontrolna

Research – Doświadczalna

6 months – 6 miesięcy

Long-leg – Długa noga

54.9

54.8

–0.1

Stretch rate – Szybkość rozciągania

104.0

104.5

+0.5

Pelvis-breast – Pierś miednicy

93.4

92.2

–1.2

Chest – Skrzynia

70.0

70.2

+0.2

Compactness – Zwartość

122.4

122.7

+0.3

Outgrowness – Outgrowness

104.3

104.4

+0.1

Bone volume – Objętość kości

14.6

14.7

+0.1

12 months – 12 miesięcy

Long-leg – Długa noga

49.8

51.2

+1.4

Stretch rate – Szybkość rozciągania

110.2

109.4

–0.8

Pelvis-breast – Pierś miednicy

93.2

94.1

+0.9

Chest – Skrzynia

66.8

69.9

+3.1

Compactness – Zwartość

128.5

129.0

+0.5

Outgrowness – Outgrowness

105.1

107.3

+2.2

Bone volume – Objętość kości

15.5

15.4

–0.1

18 months – 18 miesięcy

Long-leg – Długa noga

48.2

49.0

+0.8

Stretch rate – Szybkość rozciągania

112.0

112.4

+0.4

Pelvis-breast – Pierś miednicy

95.4

96.3

+0.9

Chest – Skrzynia

68.2

68.8

+0.6

Compactness – Zwartość

127.4

129.4

+2.0

Outgrowness – Outgrowness

105.4

105.8

+0.4

Bone volume – Objętość kości

15.4

15.6

+0.2

Long-leg index shows, that in postnatal ontogenesis in tested animals depth of chest increased stronger than the height at the withers, as this index decreased from 61.7 to 50.9%.

Total development of animals in the age aspect is actually visible from the increasing of stretch rate index, which rose from 102.0 to 113.5%.

From 6 to 18 months of age pelvis-breast index was increasing in animals of control and experimental groups. This indicates that the front and rear of the body evolved proportionally.

Chest volume index characterizes the development of the animals' chest. In postnatal ontogenesis in experimental animals value changes of this index has wavy character. In some age periods of development it is higher in other – lower. This testifies the rhythmicity of the chest of animals in control and experimental groups.

Compactness index of heifers in the control and experimental groups increased from 6 to 18 months of age. This indicates that in postnatal ontogenesis in experimental animals the volume of the chest and body length were developing proportionally.

Measurements of the height of experimental animals in postnatal ontogenesis had rectilinear increase nature, as shows the index. In animals aged 6 months it made 104.0–102.8% and in 18-month-old – 104.0–108.0%.

For bone volume index in postnatal ontogenesis significant fluctuations in tested animals were not found. Thus, the indices of body structure indicate that animals of control and experimental groups in postnatal ontogenesis developed harmoniously and proportionally.

CONCLUSIONS

In postnatal ontogenesis animals of high-fermenting type by body weight and linear development are dominating over low-fermenting counterparts, indicating higher levels of synthetic and metabolic processes in individuals of high-fermenting type.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Institute of agriculture of the Carpathian region

REFERENCES

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    Prognostication of real volumes of milk and meat: it is advisable to evaluate cattle by the physiological selection index.
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    Desirable exterior type of dairy cows [Bazhanyi eksteriernyi typ koriv molochnoi khudoby].
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    Google Scholar
  9. Milostiviy, R., Karlova, L., Sanzhara, R. (2017).
    Qualitative composition of milk of Holstein cows depending on the paratypic's and genetic factors.
    Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 19 (82), 125–131.
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    Dairy productivity and reproductive capacity of Ukrainian black-and-white dairy cows of different types of constitution [Molochna produktyvnist ta vidtvorna zdatnist koriv ukrainskoi chorno-riaboi molochnoi porody riznykh typiv konstytutsii].
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This Article

Received: 10 Dec 2019

Accepted: 13 Mar 2020

Published online: 23 May 2020

Accesses: 123

How to cite

Fedak, V., Vovk, S., Polulikh, M., Shelevach, A., Fedak, N., Stadnitska, O., (2020). The growth of body mass and linear development of Simmental heifers of different constitution types in the Carpathian pre-mountain region. Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 19(1), 25–30. DOI: 10.21005/asp.2020.19.1.03.