Research Article

Results of breeding use of insemination boars of selected breeds in the seasons of the reproductive cycle of the European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.)

Krzysztof Tereszkiewicz 1 , Kazimierz Pokrywka 2

1Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Management, Department of Computer Engineering in Management, al. Powstańców Warszawy 10, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

2Polish Herbalists and Herb Doctors Association, Stanisław Pigoń State Higher Vocational School, ul. Rynek 1, 38-400 Krosno, Poland

Abstract. The study aimed to investigate changes in semen parameters of insemination boars of selected breeds with reference to seasonal changes in the properties of ejaculates in the European boar (Sus scrofa L.). The material for the study covered 88000 ejaculates obtained from boars of the following breeds: Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Duroc, Hampshire, Pietrain, Duroc×Pietrain, Pietrain×Duroc. The results of the research indicate that seasonal changes in the quality of the produced ejaculates, similar to those occurring in the males of the wild boar, still occur in insemination boars. The observed changes concern above all the volume of the ejaculates, the total number and concentration of spermatozoa. Seasonal variation in the quality of the produced ejaculates is fixed and has not decreased in the recent years despite the conducted breeding activities, selection and the limitation of the influence of environmental factors.

Keywords: boars, breed, atavism, ejaculate, seasonal changes

INTRODUCTION

Boars used for insemination show considerable variation in physical and qualitative properties of ejaculates, which is conditioned by genetic as well as numerous environmental factors. According to authors [Banaszewska et al. 2007Banaszewska, D., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2007). Wpływ sezonu na zmiany w budowie morfologicznej plemników wybranych ras knurów inseminacyjnych [The influence of the season on thesperm morphology young boars used for insemination]. Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 6(2), 3–14 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Wilczyńska et al. 2013Wilczyńska, E., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Kowalewski, D., Gajownik, K. (2013). Jakość nasienia knurów ras wbp, pbz, duroc i pietrain w poszczególnych miesiącach roku [The quality of boar semen of Polish Large, Polish Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain breeds in different months of the year]. Roczniki Naukowe Polskiego Towarzystwa Zootechnicznego., 9(1), 49–56 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Dziekońska et al. 2014Dziekońska, A., Fraser, L., Koziorowska-Gilun, M., Strzeżek, J., Koziorowski, M., Kordan, W. (2014). Seasonal-dependent variations in metabolic status of spermatozoa and antioxidant enzyme activity in the reproductive tract fluids of wild boar/domestic pig hybrids. Polish J. Vet. Sci., 17(2), 307–313. https://doi.org/10.2478/pjvs-2014-0042, Koprianiuk et al. 2014Koprianiuk, A., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Iwanina, M., Serewa, D. (2014). Season-dependent characteristics of insemination boar ejaculates. Folia Pomer. Univ. Technol. Stetin. Agric., Aliment., Pisc., Zootech., 315(32), 31–40. Google Scholar, Zasiadczyk et al. 2015Zasiadczyk, L., Fraser, L., Kordan, W., Wasilewska, K. (2015). Individual and seasonal variations in the quality of fractionated boar ejaculates. Theriogenology, 83(8), 1287–1303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.01.015], the season of semen collection plays a significant role among the environmental factors determining the quality of boars’ semen. According to Auvigne et al. [2010]Auvigne, V., Leneveu, P., Jehannin, C., Peltoniemi, O., Salle, E. (2010). Seasonal infertility in sows: a five year field study to analyze therelative roles of heat stress and photoperiod. Theriogenology, 74(1), 60–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2009.12.019 and Górski et al. [2017]Górski, K., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2017). Effects of season on semen parameters and relationships between selected semen characteristics in Hypor boars. Turk. J Vet. Anim. Sci., 41, 563–569. https://doi.org/10.3906/vet-1701-42, seasonal differences in the sexual activity and semen parameters have evolutionary grounds and result from a close affinity of contemporary breeds of pigs to the wild boar (Sus scrofa L.). The wild boar, living in its natural habitat in Europe, represents a species characterized by seasonal sexual activity [Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004bKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004b). Biologia rozrodu dzika [Reproductive biology of wild boars]. Med. Weter., 60(12), 1251–1253 [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. The phenomenon of seasonality concerns both males and females. Literature data [Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004bKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004b). Biologia rozrodu dzika [Reproductive biology of wild boars]. Med. Weter., 60(12), 1251–1253 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004cKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004c). The effect of season on the properties of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 80, 281–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.08.006] indicate that an increase in the sexual activity of boars can be observed in the autumn-winter period. In this period, females show (oestrus) symptoms and the peak of the breeding season (estrus) takes place in November and December, while the sexual arousal resting period (anoestrus) in the summer. In boars, seasonal variation in breeding properties is reflected in a considerably lower volume and concentration of spermatozoa in the semen and in a decrease in sexual activity in the summer. In the autumn-winter period, an increase in the weight of the testicles, in the level of testosterone and in enzyme activity in the semen can be seen [Mauget and Boissin 1987Mauget, R., Boissin, J. (1987). Seasonal changes in testis weight and testosterone concentration in the european wild boars (Sus scrofa L.). Anim. Reprod. Sci., 13(1), 67–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(87)90120-5]. The volume and the concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculates increases as well. Seasonal variation in the properties of the semen have also been observed in hybrids of the wild boar and the domestic pig [Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004aKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004a). Właściwości nasienia mieszańców dzika ze świnią domową w cyklu rocznym [Properties of semen in the annual cycle of wildboar/domestic pig hybrids]. Med. Weter., 60(1), 57–61 [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. Research [Milewska and Falkowski 2004Milewska, W., Falkowski, J. (2004). Effects of season on selected semen traits in purebred and crossbred boars. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep., 22(3), 289–295. Google Scholar, Pokrywka et al. 2014Pokrywka, K., Tereszkiewicz, K., Ruda, M. (2014). The impact of season of birth and breeding of boars of polish landrace breed on their insemination efficiency. J. Cent. Eur. Agric., 15(3), 272–283. https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/15.3.1487, Petrocelli et al. [2015]Petrocelli, H., Batista, C., Gosálvez, J. (2015). Seasonal variation in sperm characteristics of boars in southern Uruguay. R. Bras. Zootec., 44(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902015000100001, Szostak and Przykaza 2016Szostak, B., Przykaza, Ł. (2016). The effect of season on semen parameters in crossbred boars and phenotypic correlations between semen characteristics in different seasons. J. Cent. Eur. Agric., 17(2), 252–259. https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/17.2.1697] shows that the long-term process of pig domestication did not lead to a complete elimination of seasonal variation in breeding use and boars’ sexual activity. The influence of the season on quantitative and qualitative properties of boars’ semen has been confirmed in numerous studies. The effect of the season has been considered in the context of changes in specific months [Adamiak et al. 2010Adamiak, A., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2010). Wpływ pory roku na właściwości fizyczne ejakulatu knurów ras wbp i pbz [Influence of season of the year onphysical properties of ejaculates from Polish Large White and Polish Landrace boars]. Rocz. Nauk. Zoot., 37(2), 159–167 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Wilczyńska et al. 2013Wilczyńska, E., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Kowalewski, D., Gajownik, K. (2013). Jakość nasienia knurów ras wbp, pbz, duroc i pietrain w poszczególnych miesiącach roku [The quality of boar semen of Polish Large, Polish Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain breeds in different months of the year]. Roczniki Naukowe Polskiego Towarzystwa Zootechnicznego., 9(1), 49–56 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Koprianiuk et al. 2014Koprianiuk, A., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Iwanina, M., Serewa, D. (2014). Season-dependent characteristics of insemination boar ejaculates. Folia Pomer. Univ. Technol. Stetin. Agric., Aliment., Pisc., Zootech., 315(32), 31–40. Google Scholar], seasons [Knecht et al. 2014Knecht, D., Środoń, S., Duziński, K. (2014). The influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 44(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v44i1.1, Caisin and Snitco 2016Caisin, L., Snitco, T. (2016). The influence of the seasonality on boars sperm production -breeder of different species. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 22(1), 118–122. https://doi.org/10.7251/AGRENG1601182C, Górski et al. 2017Górski, K., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2017). Effects of season on semen parameters and relationships between selected semen characteristics in Hypor boars. Turk. J Vet. Anim. Sci., 41, 563–569. https://doi.org/10.3906/vet-1701-42], and photo-periods [Claus and Weiler 1985Claus, R., Weiler, U. (1985). Influence of light and photoperiodicity on pig prolificacy. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl., 33(1), 185–197. Google Scholar, Sancho et al. 2004Sancho, S., Pinart, E., Briz, M., Garcia-Gil, N., Badia, E., Kadar, E., Pruneda, A., Bussalleu, E., Yeste, M., Coll, M.G., Bonet, S. (2004). Semen quality of post pubertal boars during increasing and decreasing natural photoperiods. Theriogenology, 62(7), 1271–1282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.01.003, Rivera et al. 2005Rivera, M.M., Quintero-Moreno, A., Barrera, X., Palomo, M.J., Rigau, T., Gil, E.R. (2005). Natural Mediterranean photoperiod does not affect the main parameters of boar-semen quality analysis. Theriogenology, 64(4), 934–946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.01.001, Knecht et al. 2013Knecht, D., Środoń, S., Szulc, K., Duziński, K. (2013). The effect of photoperiod on selected parameters of boar semen. Livestock Science., 157(1), 364–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.06.027]. According to Colenbrander and Kemp [1990]Colenbrander, B., Kemp, B. (1990). Factors influencing semen quality in pig. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl., 40(85), 105–115. Google Scholar, seasonal fluctuations in semen production in boars may amount to 25–30%. According to some authors [Knecht et al. 2013Knecht, D., Środoń, S., Szulc, K., Duziński, K. (2013). The effect of photoperiod on selected parameters of boar semen. Livestock Science., 157(1), 364–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.06.027], lower results of breeding use of boars observed in the summer may be associated with high temperatures and the heat stresswhich follows. Kunavongkrit et al. [2005]Kunavongkrit, A., Suriyasomboon, A., Lundeheim, N., Heard, T.W., Einarsson, E. (2005). Management and sperm production of boars under differing environmental conditions. Theriogenology, 63(2), 657–667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.09.039 claim that a high temperature may unfavorably impact the spermatogenesis, leading to the degradation of the seminiferous epithelium of the testicles. These changes lead to the lowering of production and concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. Studies [Brucka-Jastrzębska et al. 2008Brucka-Jastrzębska, E., Białek, M., Brzezińska, M., Kawczuga, D., Drewnowski, W., Lisiecki, L. (2008). Parametry ejakulatu w zależności od rasy świń [Semen parameters in relations to pig breed]. Med. Weter., 64(10), 1248–1251 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Knecht et al. 2013Knecht, D., Środoń, S., Szulc, K., Duziński, K. (2013). The effect of photoperiod on selected parameters of boar semen. Livestock Science., 157(1), 364–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.06.027, Pokrywka et al. 2014Pokrywka, K., Tereszkiewicz, K., Ruda, M. (2014). The impact of season of birth and breeding of boars of polish landrace breed on their insemination efficiency. J. Cent. Eur. Agric., 15(3), 272–283. https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/15.3.1487, Górski et al. 2017Górski, K., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2017). Effects of season on semen parameters and relationships between selected semen characteristics in Hypor boars. Turk. J Vet. Anim. Sci., 41, 563–569. https://doi.org/10.3906/vet-1701-42] show that seasonal changes in boars’ semen properties may vary in different breeds of pigs. Breeds of pigs produced and maintained in the northern hemisphere in the zones further from the equator show a particular susceptibility to seasonal changes in sexual activity [Petrocelli et al. 2015Petrocelli, H., Batista, C., Gosálvez, J. (2015). Seasonal variation in sperm characteristics of boars in southern Uruguay. R. Bras. Zootec., 44(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902015000100001]. Boars of particular breeds or their hybrids may show seasonal differences in the volume of the ejaculate, in the concentration and motility of spermatozoa [Milewska and Falkowski 2004Milewska, W., Falkowski, J. (2004). Effects of season on selected semen traits in purebred and crossbred boars. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep., 22(3), 289–295. Google Scholar, Brucka-Jastrzębska et al. 2008Brucka-Jastrzębska, E., Białek, M., Brzezińska, M., Kawczuga, D., Drewnowski, W., Lisiecki, L. (2008). Parametry ejakulatu w zależności od rasy świń [Semen parameters in relations to pig breed]. Med. Weter., 64(10), 1248–1251 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Koprianiuk et al. 2014Koprianiuk, A., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Iwanina, M., Serewa, D. (2014). Season-dependent characteristics of insemination boar ejaculates. Folia Pomer. Univ. Technol. Stetin. Agric., Aliment., Pisc., Zootech., 315(32), 31–40. Google Scholar]. The effect of the season on the morphological image of the collected semen, which tends to be worse in the summer and early autumn, Polish Large White was also shown [Smital 2009Smital, J. (2009). Effects influencing boar semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 110, 335–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.024, Dziekońska et al. 2014Dziekońska, A., Fraser, L., Koziorowska-Gilun, M., Strzeżek, J., Koziorowski, M., Kordan, W. (2014). Seasonal-dependent variations in metabolic status of spermatozoa and antioxidant enzyme activity in the reproductive tract fluids of wild boar/domestic pig hybrids. Polish J. Vet. Sci., 17(2), 307–313. https://doi.org/10.2478/pjvs-2014-0042, Kamanová et al. 2018Kamanová, V., Nevrkla, P., Hadaš, Z. (2018). Effect of breed on frequency of morphological defects in boar spermatozoa. Acta Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun., 66(3), 665–668. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201866030665]. Studies by Banaszewska et al. [2007]Banaszewska, D., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2007). Wpływ sezonu na zmiany w budowie morfologicznej plemników wybranych ras knurów inseminacyjnych [The influence of the season on thesperm morphology young boars used for insemination]. Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 6(2), 3–14 [in Polish]. Google Scholar indicate that boars of the PLW and Hampshire breeds are less prone to seasonal variation in the quality of the semen. The semen of the Polish Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain breeds undergoes qualitative changes to a greater extent. The analysis of literature [Mauget and Boissin 1987Mauget, R., Boissin, J. (1987). Seasonal changes in testis weight and testosterone concentration in the european wild boars (Sus scrofa L.). Anim. Reprod. Sci., 13(1), 67–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(87)90120-5, Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004aKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004a). Właściwości nasienia mieszańców dzika ze świnią domową w cyklu rocznym [Properties of semen in the annual cycle of wildboar/domestic pig hybrids]. Med. Weter., 60(1), 57–61 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004bKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004b). Biologia rozrodu dzika [Reproductive biology of wild boars]. Med. Weter., 60(12), 1251–1253 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004cKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004c). The effect of season on the properties of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 80, 281–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.08.006, Dziekońska et al. 2014Dziekońska, A., Fraser, L., Koziorowska-Gilun, M., Strzeżek, J., Koziorowski, M., Kordan, W. (2014). Seasonal-dependent variations in metabolic status of spermatozoa and antioxidant enzyme activity in the reproductive tract fluids of wild boar/domestic pig hybrids. Polish J. Vet. Sci., 17(2), 307–313. https://doi.org/10.2478/pjvs-2014-0042] concerning semen quality and breeding activity of boars and males of the wild boar and the domestic pig indicates that June-July months are the period when the quality of the produced ejaculates is the lowest, while the semen obtained in November and December exhibits the most favourable properties.

The aim of the research was to evaluate variation in semen parameters of insemination boars of selected breeds with reference to seasonal changes in the properties of ejaculates observed in the wild boar (Sus scrofa L.), considered an ancestor of the domestic pigs used nowadays. The study also attempted to show tendencies in seasonal variation in semen parameters of the examined boars between 1995 and 2014.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The material for the study comprised 88,000 ejaculates obtained between 1995 and 2014 from boars of the following breeds: Polish Large White (PLW) – 85, Polish Landrace (PL) – 316, Duroc (D) – 14, Hampshire (H) – 10, Pietrain (P) – 70, Duroc×Pietrain (D×P) – 36, Pietrain×Duroc (P×D) – 35, used in Boars’ Exploitation Station in Czermin (GPS 50°20′ 32.2′′ N, 21°20′ 45.1′′ E), a branch of the Małopolskie Center of Biotechnology. The animals were kept in accordance with applicable welfare standards included in (WE) Regulation No. 882 [UE 2004UE (2004). Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on official controls performed to ensure the verification of compliance with feed and food law, animal health and animal welfare rules. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32004R0882. Google Scholar]. The boars were kept in closed rooms in separate coops of 6 m–2 size, inlaid with sawdust. The temperature in the room was maintained between 12°C and 20°C, with relative humidity of 70–75%. The boars were fed individually using a delivery system with complete feed granular mixture for breeding boars, containing on average 12.5 (JM) of metabolic energy and 16.5 g general protein. The feeding of all boars from experiment always meet its requirements on energy and all other nutrients. The animals had constant access to water. Before semen collection, boars were stimulated by a short physical activity involving a walk from the coop to the sampling point. Ejaculates were collected by the manual method described by King and Macpherson [1973]King, G.J., Macpherson, J.W. (1973). A comparison of two methods for boar semen collection. J. Anim. Sci., 36(3), 563–565. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1973.363563x. All the animals had a verified health status. The collected ejaculates underwent laboratory tests: the volume of the semen (ml) was measured directly after the collection by means of a scaled cylinder with the accuracy up to 10ml; the concentration of spermatozoa (×106 ml–1) in the ejaculate was measured by means of the colimetric spectrophotometric method involving a measurement of the intensity of light passing through a suspension of spermatozoa in an isotonic solution of sodium chloride or sodiumcitrate. On the basis of the semen volume and spermatozoid concentration, the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate was calculated and expressed as 109 spermatozoa per ejaculate. The percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa (%) was estimated using a microscope in 200-times magnification (Nikon Eclipse E100, Nikon Instruments, Japan). The total number of progressively motile spermatozoa (109) was calculated as the product of the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate and the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa. The number of insemination doses (n) was calculated after dividing diluted semen (MERCK III diluent) into insemination doses of 100 ml volume containing 3.0×109 spermatozoa. To conduct morphological evaluation, agents coloured by nigrosine and eosin were produced, which were examined under a light microscope, isolating spermatozoa with correct conformation and those showing major and subordinate changes according to the classification by Blom [1981]Blom, E. (1981). Ocena morfologiczna wad plemników buhajów. II. Propozycja nowej klasyfikacji i wad plemników [Morphological evaluation of bull spermatozoa abnormalities. II. Proposal of a new classification of spermatozoa abnormalities]. Med. Weter., 37(4), 239–242 [in Polish]. Google Scholar. The parameters of the ejaculates of the boars of the examined breeds were analyzed statistically in two collection seasons, i.e. November-December (season A) and July-August (season B).

Statistical analysis was conducted based on arithmetic averages and standard deviations (SD). In order to estimate differences between the averages a single-factor variance analysis for a non-orthogonal system was used, while the significance of the differences was estimated by means of the Tukey test. Statistical inference was conducted at two significance levels P ≤ 0.01 and P ≤ 0.05. Additionally, average results of breeding properties of the boars used in the analyzed station between 1995–2004 (I) and 2005–2014 (II) were calculated and summarized in the form of a graph. Statistical analysis was conducted by means of STATISTICA (12.0) software.

RESULTS

Table 1 shows seasonal variation in physical parameters of the semen of the boars of the examined breeds. The obtained results clearly show that the ejaculates obtained from the boars in November-December in comparison with those collected in July-August were characterized by a statistically significantly larger volume. Differences in the volume of the ejaculates between the analyzed seasons were observed in the semen of boars of all the breeds and of hybrids. The greatest difference in the volume of the ejaculate, amounting to 47.60 ml, was stated for the Hampshire breed and for the PLW breed (25.98 ml). It is worth noting that smaller differences in the volume of the ejaculates collected in the analyzed seasons were observed in hybrid boars. It was observed that ejaculates obtained in November-December were characterized by a lower concentration of spermatozoa. This interdependence was statistically confirmed in the semen ofthe boars of the PLW, PL, Duroc (P ≤ 0.01) and Hampshire (P ≤ 0.05) breeds. Despite a lower concentration of spermatozoa in the semen obtained in November-December, their total number in the ejaculates was statistically significantly higher – from 3.80×109 (Pietrain×Duroc) to 5.85×109 (Hampshire). As a result of this interdependence, more portions of semen were produced from the ejaculates obtained in this period. The difference in the number of doses ranged between 1.17 for the Pietrain×Duroc breed to 1.80 for the Hampshire breed. Seasonal variation in the number of semen doses was statistically confirmed (P ≤ 0.01) with the exception of the Duroc breed. The conducted analysis of qualitative parameters of the semen of the respective boars shows that the largest seasonal differences in the factors determining the breeding efficiency of insemination boars were stated for the Hampshire breed.

Table 1. Seasonal changes in quantitative parameters of the semen of boars of selected breeds
Tabela 1. Sezonowe zmiany parametrów ilościowych nasienia knurów wybranych ras

Specification
Cechy

Season A – Sezon A

Season A – Sezon B

Difference
Różnica

n

mean

SD

n

mean

SD

A – B

Volume of ejaculates, ml – Objętość ejakulatu, ml

Rasa
Breed –

PLW

1846

266.15A

93.35

1664

240.17B

84.88

25.98

PL

8202

283.51A

104.98

7719

258.74B

94.58

24.77

Duroc

221

181.18A

58.41

250

157.76B

53.45

23.42

Hampshire

274

280.29A

98.38

272

232.69B

88.66

47.60

Pietrain

1646

265.61A

99.47

1448

244.84B

97.49

20.77

D×P

1674

239.88A

73.37

1604

222.31B

70.92

17.57

P×D

1285

241.20A

84.64

1215

229.16B

78.32

12.04

Percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa, % – Odsetek plemników o ruchu postępowym, %

Rasa
Breed –

PLW

1846

68.61

4.35

1664

68.56

4.64

0.05

PL

8202

67.91a

5.55

7719

67.66b

6.56

0.25

Duroc

221

67.69

7.36

250

68.00

4.30

–0.31

Hampshire

274

66.64

5.03

272

66.27

6.31

0.37

Pietrain

1646

68.32

5.35

1448

68.44

5.32

–0.12

D×P

1674

69.11A

3.15

1604

68.45B

6.24

0.66

P×D

1285

69.55

4.46

1215

69.54

3.55

0.01

Concentration of spermatozoa, ×106 ml1 – Koncentracja plemników, ×106 ml1

Rasa
Breed –

PLW

1846

432.94A

119.73

1664

458.06B

131.16

–25.12

PL

8202

426.94A

130.18

7719

441.28B

134.99

–14.34

Duroc

221

443.95A

120.57

250

470.50B

113.82

–26.55

Hampshire

274

370.15a

131.09

272

396.05b

137.07

–25.90

Pietrain

1646

426.14

137.94

1448

422.05

136.11

4.09

D×P

1674

451.21

131.38

1604

459.89

134.76

–8.68

P×D

1285

472.19

134.30

1215

466.52

141.10

5.67

Total number of progressive spermatozoa, ×109 – Ogólna liczba plemników o ruchu postepowym, ×109

Rasa
Breed –

PLW

1804

77.34A

24.95

1629

73.41B

23.68

3.93

PL

7931

79.20A

26.20

7435

75.35B

22.65

3.85

Duroc

211

55.98

23.45

239

51.99

20.55

3.99

Hampshire

262

63.83A

19.13

260

57.98B

17.93

5.85

Pietrain

1608

74.01A

22.39

1401

68.85B

22.62

5.16

D×P

1638

73.77A

22.52

1545

69.97B

21.92

3.80

P×D

1262

76.31A

23.33

1190

72.51B

21.26

3.80

Number of insemination doses, n – Liczba dawek inseminacyjnych, n

Rasa
Breed –

PLW

1804

25.39A

7.79

1629

24.12B

7.35

1.27

PL

7931

26.20A

7.34

7435

24.94B

7.12

1.26

Duroc

211

18.24

7.32

239

17.10

6.44

1.14

Hampshire

262

21.10A

6.17

260

19.30B

5.92

1.80

Pietrain

1608

24.43A

6.99

1401

22.83B

7.03

1.60

D×P

1638

24.47A

7.13

1545

23.24B

6.84

1.23

P×D

1262

25.39A

7.49

1190

24.22B

6.87

1.17

Table 2 shows seasonal variation in the morphological parameters of the semen of the examined breeds. A statistically significant influence of the examined factor on the morphological parameters of boars’ semen was not observed in the study. The observed seasonal differences in the percentage of spermatozoa with morphological changes did not exceed 2%. It was observed, however, that a higher percentage of spermatozoa with major and subordinate changes occurred in the semen obtained in July-August in all the examined breeds.

Table 2. Seasonal changes in morphological parameters of the semen of boars of selected breeds
Tabela 2. Sezonowe zmiany parametrów morfologicznych nasienia knurów wybranych ras

Specification
Cechy

Season A – Sezon A

Season B – Sezon B

Difference
Różnica

n

mean

SD

n

mean

SD

A – B

The percentage of spermatozoa with major changes, %
Odsetek plemników ze zmianami głównymi, %

Rasa
Breed –

PLW

105

1.12

0.31

103

1.78

0.87

–0.66

PL

352

2.13

1.40

338

3.73

1.83

–1.60

Duroc

18

2.50

0.91

21

3.15

1.32

–0.65

Hampshire

23

2.81

1.25

22

2.44

1.78

–0.37

Pietrain

117

1.17

0.74

106

2.59

1.01

–1.42

D×P

121

1.51

0.88

119

2.57

1.62

–1.06

P×D

99

1.68

0.96

95

2.65

1.45

–0.97

The percentage of spermatozoa with subordinate changes, %
Odsetek plemników ze zmianami podrzędnymi, %

Rasa
Breed –

PLW

105

2.01

1.95

103

3.94

1.17

–1.93

PL

352

3.67

2.30

338

4.09

2.25

–0.42

Duroc

18

3.98

1.05

21

4.58

1.98

–0.60

Hampshire

23

3.26

1.48

22

4.18

1.11

–0.92

Pietrain

117

2.78

1.62

106

4.08

2.08

–1.30

D×P

121

1.87

1.04

119

3.02

2.07

–1.15

P×D

99

2.05

1.14

95

3.48

2.15

–1.43

Figures 1–5 show differences in physical parameters of the ejaculates of the boars of the examined breeds in the period 1995–2005 and 2006–2014. The presented data indicate that seasonal differences in the quality of the produced ejaculates are fixed and have not diminished despite breeding activities, selection and the limitation of the influence of environmental factors conducted in the recent years. Comparing ten-year periods in the use, it was observed that seasonal differences referring to selected semen properties have even increased. An increase in the differences was stated for the volume of the ejaculate in the PLW, PL and Duroc breeds, and for the spermatozoid concentration factor especially in the PL and Duroc breeds.


Fig. 1. Seasonal differences in the volume of the ejaculates in boars of the examined breeds in the period 1995–2005 (I) and 2006–2014 (II)

Rys. 1. Sezonowe różnice objętości ejakulatu knurów ocenianych ras w latach 1995–2005 (I) i 2006–2014 (II)


Fig. 2. Seasonal differences in the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa in boars of the examined breeds in the period 1995–2005 (I) and 2006–2014 (II)

Rys. 2. Sezonowe różnice odsetka plemników o ruchu postępowym knurów ocenianych ras w latach 1995–2005 (I) i 2006–
–2014 (II)


Fig. 3. Seasonal differences in the concentration of spermatozoa in boars of the examined breeds in the period 1995–2005 (I) and 2006–2014 (II)

Rys. 3. Sezonowe różnice koncentracji plemników knurów ocenianych ras w latach 1995–2005 (I) i 2006–2014 (II)



Fig. 4. Seasonal differences in the total number of progressively motile spermatozoa in boars of the examined breeds in the period 1995–2005 (I) and 2006–2014 (II)

Rys. 4. Sezonowe różnice ogólnej liczby plemników o ruchu postępowym knurów ocenianych ras w latach 1995–2005 (I) i 2006–2014 (II)


Fig. 5. Seasonal differences in the number of insemination doses of boars of the examined breeds in the period 1995–2005 (I) and 2006–2014 (II)

Rys. 5. Sezonowe różnice liczby dawek inseminacyjnych knurów ocenianych ras w latach1995–2005 (I) i 2006–2014 (II)

DISCUSSION

The breeds of the domestic pig used nowadays belong to polyestral animals. However, as numerous studies show [Smital 2009Smital, J. (2009). Effects influencing boar semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 110, 335–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.024, Kondracki et al. 2012Kondracki, S., Iwanina, M., Wysokińska, A., Huszno, M. (2012). Comparative analysis of Duroc and Pietrain boar sperm morphology. Acta Vet. Brno., 81(2), 195–199. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201281020195, Dziekońska et al. 2014Dziekońska, A., Fraser, L., Koziorowska-Gilun, M., Strzeżek, J., Koziorowski, M., Kordan, W. (2014). Seasonal-dependent variations in metabolic status of spermatozoa and antioxidant enzyme activity in the reproductive tract fluids of wild boar/domestic pig hybrids. Polish J. Vet. Sci., 17(2), 307–313. https://doi.org/10.2478/pjvs-2014-0042], seasonal differences in the sexual activity in boars can still be seen. Seasonal changes are observed in qualitative and quantitative indexes of the semen. The research has shown a significant influence of the season on the volume of the ejaculate, which was by 12.04 ml (P×D) to 47.60 ml (H) higher in November-December,depending on the breed. The obtained results show that seasonal variation in the volume of the ejaculate is similar to that observed in wild boars. As Kozdrowski and Dubiel [2004c] proved, boars produce ejaculates of the greatest volume amounting to 150ml in November and December, while in the period between May and July, the volume of the ejaculates does not exceed 100 ml. Similar changes in the volume of the ejaculate in the annual cycle were stated for hybrids of wild boar males with the domestic pig [Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004aKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004a). Właściwości nasienia mieszańców dzika ze świnią domową w cyklu rocznym [Properties of semen in the annual cycle of wildboar/domestic pig hybrids]. Med. Weter., 60(1), 57–61 [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. The obtained results show that the examined boars preserved the propensity to seasonal variation in the volume of the ejaculate, but the differences are not as marked as in their ancestors and do not exceed 10%. A higher volume of the ejaculates in the autumn – winter period was also observed by other authors [Milewska and Falkowski 2004Milewska, W., Falkowski, J. (2004). Effects of season on selected semen traits in purebred and crossbred boars. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep., 22(3), 289–295. Google Scholar, Adamiak et al. 2010Adamiak, A., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2010). Wpływ pory roku na właściwości fizyczne ejakulatu knurów ras wbp i pbz [Influence of season of the year onphysical properties of ejaculates from Polish Large White and Polish Landrace boars]. Rocz. Nauk. Zoot., 37(2), 159–167 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Brodzki et al. 2015Brodzki, P., Wrona Z., Klimont M., Krakowski L. (2015). Charakterystyka budowy morfologicznej plemników knurów w rocznym cyklu produkcyjnym [Morphological characteristics of boar spermatozoa in the annual production cycle]. Med. Weter., 71(2), 109–113 [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. According to Wilczyńska et al. [2013]Wilczyńska, E., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Kowalewski, D., Gajownik, K. (2013). Jakość nasienia knurów ras wbp, pbz, duroc i pietrain w poszczególnych miesiącach roku [The quality of boar semen of Polish Large, Polish Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain breeds in different months of the year]. Roczniki Naukowe Polskiego Towarzystwa Zootechnicznego., 9(1), 49–56 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, ejaculates of the greatest volume are obtained in December and January. The authors emphasize that seasonal changes in this parameter are similar in boars of the respective breeds. Knecht et al. [2013]Knecht, D., Środoń, S., Szulc, K., Duziński, K. (2013). The effect of photoperiod on selected parameters of boar semen. Livestock Science., 157(1), 364–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.06.027 showed a relation between the volume of the ejaculates and the length of the light day, with an increase in the volume of the ejaculate occurring parallel to the shortening of the length of the light day. A similar interdependence was observed by other authors [Sancho et al. 2004Sancho, S., Pinart, E., Briz, M., Garcia-Gil, N., Badia, E., Kadar, E., Pruneda, A., Bussalleu, E., Yeste, M., Coll, M.G., Bonet, S. (2004). Semen quality of post pubertal boars during increasing and decreasing natural photoperiods. Theriogenology, 62(7), 1271–1282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.01.003, Petrocelli et al. 2015Petrocelli, H., Batista, C., Gosálvez, J. (2015). Seasonal variation in sperm characteristics of boars in southern Uruguay. R. Bras. Zootec., 44(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902015000100001].

According to the data by Kozdrowski and Dubiel [2004a], the motility of spermatozoa in boars undergoes seasonal variation with a decrease in this index observed in the summer. The lowest values of the index occur in July. In other studies [Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004cKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004c). The effect of season on the properties of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 80, 281–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.08.006], the authors observed a lower percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa in August. The research [Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004aKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004a). Właściwości nasienia mieszańców dzika ze świnią domową w cyklu rocznym [Properties of semen in the annual cycle of wildboar/domestic pig hybrids]. Med. Weter., 60(1), 57–61 [in Polish]. Google Scholar] conducted on the semen of hybrids of the wild boar and the domestic pig showed that the percentage of motile spermatozoa was lower in the summer months and increased until November, when it was the highest. The available literature [Adamiak et al. 2010Adamiak, A., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2010). Wpływ pory roku na właściwości fizyczne ejakulatu knurów ras wbp i pbz [Influence of season of the year onphysical properties of ejaculates from Polish Large White and Polish Landrace boars]. Rocz. Nauk. Zoot., 37(2), 159–167 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Koprianiuk et al. 2014Koprianiuk, A., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Iwanina, M., Serewa, D. (2014). Season-dependent characteristics of insemination boar ejaculates. Folia Pomer. Univ. Technol. Stetin. Agric., Aliment., Pisc., Zootech., 315(32), 31–40. Google Scholar, Zasiadczyk et al. 2015Zasiadczyk, L., Fraser, L., Kordan, W., Wasilewska, K. (2015). Individual and seasonal variations in the quality of fractionated boar ejaculates. Theriogenology, 83(8), 1287–1303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.01.015] does not clearly point to seasonal variation in the motility of boars’ spermatozoa. According to Smital [2009]Smital, J. (2009). Effects influencing boar semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 110, 335–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.024, an increase in the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa in boars’ semen can be observed from October to January. Wilczyńska et al. [2013]Wilczyńska, E., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Kowalewski, D., Gajownik, K. (2013). Jakość nasienia knurów ras wbp, pbz, duroc i pietrain w poszczególnych miesiącach roku [The quality of boar semen of Polish Large, Polish Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain breeds in different months of the year]. Roczniki Naukowe Polskiego Towarzystwa Zootechnicznego., 9(1), 49–56 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, by contrast, claim that seasonal variation in spermatozoa motility is rather small. The present study also shows that the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa in the analyzed seasons in most of the examined breeds was similar and complied with the current norms [Brodzki et al. 2015Brodzki, P., Wrona Z., Klimont M., Krakowski L. (2015). Charakterystyka budowy morfologicznej plemników knurów w rocznym cyklu produkcyjnym [Morphological characteristics of boar spermatozoa in the annual production cycle]. Med. Weter., 71(2), 109–113 [in Polish]. Google Scholar]. A statistically significantly higher percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa in winter was observed only in the PLW breed and Duroc×Pietrain hybrids. Authors [Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004aKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004a). Właściwości nasienia mieszańców dzika ze świnią domową w cyklu rocznym [Properties of semen in the annual cycle of wildboar/domestic pig hybrids]. Med. Weter., 60(1), 57–61 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004cKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004c). The effect of season on the properties of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 80, 281–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.08.006] show a significant seasonal variation in the concentration and the total number of spermatozoa in the semen of boars and males of the hybrid of the wild boar and the domestic pig. The index of the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate assumes more favourable values in the animals’ breeding season (November-December). From January, the total number of spermatozoa in the semen of the boars decreases rapidly [Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004cKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004c). The effect of season on the properties of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 80, 281–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.08.006]. As the present results show, the phenomenon of seasonal variation in the index of the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate still occurs in boars of the breeds of pig used nowadays. It was shown that the semen of all the examined breeds in the November-December season was characterized by a higher total number of spermatozoa, which is in line with data of other authors [Smital 2009Smital, J. (2009). Effects influencing boar semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 110, 335–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.024, Knecht et al. 2014Knecht, D., Środoń, S., Duziński, K. (2014). The influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 44(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v44i1.1, Koprianiuk et al. 2014Koprianiuk, A., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Iwanina, M., Serewa, D. (2014). Season-dependent characteristics of insemination boar ejaculates. Folia Pomer. Univ. Technol. Stetin. Agric., Aliment., Pisc., Zootech., 315(32), 31–40. Google Scholar].

The results show that seasonal changes in the index of spermatozoid concentration in currently used breeds of pigs are different from those occurring in the wild boar. It was observed that this index assumed more favourable values in the July-August period for most of the examined breeds. The results are, however, not in line with other sources. According to Knecht et al. [2014]Knecht, D., Środoń, S., Duziński, K. (2014). The influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 44(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v44i1.1 and Górski et al. [2017]Górski, K., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2017). Effects of season on semen parameters and relationships between selected semen characteristics in Hypor boars. Turk. J Vet. Anim. Sci., 41, 563–569. https://doi.org/10.3906/vet-1701-42, a higher concentration of spermatozoa in boars’ semen is observed in winter. This observation is confirmed by Petrocelli et al. [2015]Petrocelli, H., Batista, C., Gosálvez, J. (2015). Seasonal variation in sperm characteristics of boars in southern Uruguay. R. Bras. Zootec., 44(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902015000100001. Other studies [Koprianiuk et al. 2014Koprianiuk, A., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Iwanina, M., Serewa, D. (2014). Season-dependent characteristics of insemination boar ejaculates. Folia Pomer. Univ. Technol. Stetin. Agric., Aliment., Pisc., Zootech., 315(32), 31–40. Google Scholar] did not report any differences in the concentration of spermatozoa between November and December, and July and August. The data [Kozdrowski and Dubiel 2004aKozdrowski, R., Dubiel, A. (2004a). Właściwości nasienia mieszańców dzika ze świnią domową w cyklu rocznym [Properties of semen in the annual cycle of wildboar/domestic pig hybrids]. Med. Weter., 60(1), 57–61 [in Polish]. Google Scholar] show that in the summer period (June-July), the semen of the males of the domestic pig and the wild boar is characterized by a high (amounting to nearly 20%) percentage of spermatozoa with morphological changes. In the following months, the percentage of spermatozoa with incorrect conformation decreases. Seasonal variation in the percentage of spermatozoa showing major and subordinate changes was observed in insemination boars of selected breeds [Banaszewska et al. 2007Banaszewska, D., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A. (2007). Wpływ sezonu na zmiany w budowie morfologicznej plemników wybranych ras knurów inseminacyjnych [The influence of the season on thesperm morphology young boars used for insemination]. Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 6(2), 3–14 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Kondracki et al. 2012Kondracki, S., Iwanina, M., Wysokińska, A., Huszno, M. (2012). Comparative analysis of Duroc and Pietrain boar sperm morphology. Acta Vet. Brno., 81(2), 195–199. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201281020195]. As authors [Brodzki et al. 2015Brodzki, P., Wrona Z., Klimont M., Krakowski L. (2015). Charakterystyka budowy morfologicznej plemników knurów w rocznym cyklu produkcyjnym [Morphological characteristics of boar spermatozoa in the annual production cycle]. Med. Weter., 71(2), 109–113 [in Polish]. Google Scholar] emphasize, a higher percentage of spermatozoa with morphological changes in boars’ semen obtained in the summer is associated with high temperatures affecting the function of the seminiferous epithelium. The current study did not show significant differences in the morphological parameters of the semen collected in the analyzed seasons.

Seasonal variation in the sexual activity and diversified results of breeding use associated with it may constitute an important problem for a correct organization and planning of semen production in insemination stations, especially if it corresponds to the quality and value of the produced semen doses. As Colenbrander and Kemp [1990]Colenbrander, B., Kemp, B. (1990). Factors influencing semen quality in pig. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl., 40(85), 105–115. Google Scholar show, the decrease in the number of semen doses produced in the summer months may amount to as much as 30%. Studies by Wilczyńska et al. [2013]Wilczyńska, E., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Kowalewski, D., Gajownik, K. (2013). Jakość nasienia knurów ras wbp, pbz, duroc i pietrain w poszczególnych miesiącach roku [The quality of boar semen of Polish Large, Polish Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain breeds in different months of the year]. Roczniki Naukowe Polskiego Towarzystwa Zootechnicznego., 9(1), 49–56 [in Polish]. Google Scholar show that the most insemination doses were obtained from ejaculates collected in November and December. Also the present research shows that the number of doses obtained from the ejaculates collected from boars of all the examined breeds in November and December was higher. Authors [Milewska and Falkowski 2004Milewska, W., Falkowski, J. (2004). Effects of season on selected semen traits in purebred and crossbred boars. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep., 22(3), 289–295. Google Scholar, Brucka-Jastrzębska et al. 2008Brucka-Jastrzębska, E., Białek, M., Brzezińska, M., Kawczuga, D., Drewnowski, W., Lisiecki, L. (2008). Parametry ejakulatu w zależności od rasy świń [Semen parameters in relations to pig breed]. Med. Weter., 64(10), 1248–1251 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, Caisin and Snitco 2016Caisin, L., Snitco, T. (2016). The influence of the seasonality on boars sperm production -breeder of different species. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 22(1), 118–122. https://doi.org/10.7251/AGRENG1601182C] note that seasonal variation in the number of produced semen doses depends on the boar’s breed. According to Wilczyńska et al. [2013]Wilczyńska, E., Kondracki, S., Wysokińska, A., Kowalewski, D., Gajownik, K. (2013). Jakość nasienia knurów ras wbp, pbz, duroc i pietrain w poszczególnych miesiącach roku [The quality of boar semen of Polish Large, Polish Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain breeds in different months of the year]. Roczniki Naukowe Polskiego Towarzystwa Zootechnicznego., 9(1), 49–56 [in Polish]. Google Scholar, boars of the Pietrain and Duroc breeds show the highest susceptibility to the influence of the season of the year, visible in the variation in the number of insemination doses. The study shows that nearly four semen doses more were produced from the ejaculates collected in December from boars of the Duroc breed in comparison to the number of doses obtained from the ejaculates collected in July and August. Considerable differences in the number of semen doses obtained in these months were also stated for the PL, PLW and hybrids (Duroc×Pietrain) [Knecht et al. 2013Knecht, D., Środoń, S., Szulc, K., Duziński, K. (2013). The effect of photoperiod on selected parameters of boar semen. Livestock Science., 157(1), 364–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.06.027]. According to Szostak and Przykaza [2016]Szostak, B., Przykaza, Ł. (2016). The effect of season on semen parameters in crossbred boars and phenotypic correlations between semen characteristics in different seasons. J. Cent. Eur. Agric., 17(2), 252–259. https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/17.2.1697, nearly six doses of semen less, in contrast to the number of doses obtained from the ejaculates collected in winter, is obtained from the semen collected in the summer from hybrid boars (Pietrain×Duroc). The present study did not find such significant differences in the number of semen doses produced in the analyzed seasons. The greatest difference in the number of the obtained doses (1.80) was stated for boars of the Hampshire and Pietrain breed (1.60). In the case of the PLW and PL, the observed difference was nearly identical and amounted to 1.26 doses.

CONCLUSIONS

The obtained results indicate that seasonal variation in the quality of the produced ejaculates, similar to that of the males of the wild boar, still occurs in boars used for insemination. The observed changes concern above all the volume of the ejaculates, the total number and concentration of spermatozoa, which impacts the number of semen doses. Seasonal differences in the quality of the produced ejaculates in insemination boars of the examined breeds are fixed and have not decreased despite the breeding activity, selection and the limitation of the influence of environmental factors conducted in the recent years.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work was supported by the Rzeszów University of Technology in Rzeszów, Poland.

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This Article

Received: 30 Mar 2020

Accepted: 15 Jun 2020

Published online: 20 Aug 2020

Accesses: 80

How to cite

Tereszkiewicz, K., Pokrywka, K., (2020). Results of breeding use of insemination boars of selected breeds in the seasons of the reproductive cycle of the European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.). Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica, 19(2), 37–46. DOI: 10.21005/asp.2020.19.2.05.