Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnica

Volume 15(2), 2016

Review Articles

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in idiopathic epilepsy treatment in dogs 

Michalina Wąsik, Małgorzata Mikuła, Bartłomiej Jan Bartyzel, Natalia Strokowska, Piotr Sablik, Yavuz O. Uca, Piotr Koczoń

Abstract. Epilepsy is both a primary disease and secondary sign of various neurological and metabolic disorders. Idiopathic epilepsy could be burdensome in its course. It requires often a multidrug therapy, that can lead to serious side effects. One of the supportive antiepileptic therapies is a proper diet. It is believed, that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) give the chance of life quality improvement in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

Original Research Articles

The impact of addition of fresh and dried rosemary and its extracts on the quality of minced goose meat during the cold storage period. 

Małgorzata Jakubowska, Beata Hartuna, Paweł Nawrotek, Tadeusz Karamucki, Magdalena Struk, Paulius Matusevičius

Abstract. We investigated the impact of 0.2% addition of fresh and dried rosemary, as well as its extracts obtained during its processing, on the physical, sensory and hygienic quality of minced goose meat during the cold storage period. The analyzes were performed to assess the total number of mesophilic bacteria (including the Enterobacteriaceae family and Staphylococcus sp.) as well as the psychrophilic aerobic bacteria. We have evaluated pH and color, basing on the designation of L*a*b* parameters of color discriminants and performed the sensory analysis. The addition of fresh and dried rosemary and its extracts during the 7 day cold storage has blocked the activity of mesophilic bacteria in meat, but did not stop the psychrophilic bacteria. The best antibacterial activity was shown by the D rosemary extract. In the groups in which we used the rosemary and its extracts, we have observed the elucidation of meat and a significant increase of b* parameter after 7 days of cold storage. With the increasing time of storage, the decrease in flavor and aroma of minced meat was noted.

Effect of some factors on type of calving and periparturient disorders in dairy cows 

Małgorzata Jankowska, Anna Sawa, Wojciech Neja

Abstract. The study was performed with Polish Holstein-Friesian cows (Black-and-White variety) in five farms located in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province (364 cows in two free-stall barns, average milk yield of 7844 kg; 158 cows in three tie-stall barns, average milk yield of 7596 kg). The number of calves born, the housing system and the age of cows had a highly significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on the type of calving, and a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) on their production level. Single birth calvings were easier than twin birth calvings. Compared to single pregnancies, twin pregnancies were associated with a greater proportion of difficult and very difficult calvings (almost 3 and 16 times, respectively). In the free-stall system more calvings were assisted by one or more persons, while in the tie-stall system there were more normal but also very difficult parturitions that required veterinary assistance. Difficult and very difficult calvings accounted for 15.16% in heifers and 4.50% in cows. Compared to lower producing cows, parturitions of cows yielding > 7000 kg of milk were slightly more often classified as normal, but 3 times as often as difficult. Housing system had an effect on the incidence of periparturient disorders, which were more frequent in the free-stall system. Dairy cow breeders should give particular attention to the calvings of heifers and multiple pregnancies, because in such cases parturition is more often classified as difficult or very difficult. Inflammation of the udder was the greatest health concern postpartum, regardless of the housing system.

Goose eggs hatching technique improvement with the use of pre-incubation 

Joanna Kucharska-Gaca, Marek Adamski, Joanna Kuźniacka, Emilia Kowalska

Abstract. Based on the available literature it can be concluded that pre-incubation has only been used to prolong the hatching ability of eggs stored for a longer period of time. The following research used pre-incubation as a method aiming at increasing the hatchability rates. Pre-incubation was conducted immediately prior to the proper date of incubation. (7263 pcs.) White Koluda® goose eggs were used in this research. Eggs were divided into 3 groups and warmed to the temperature of 37.8°C. In both experimental groups the differences in hatchability rates of eggs and hatching of goslings were not statistically significant (P  ≤  0.05). However, while comparing the control group with those in which pre-incubation had been conducted, a higher percentage of fertilized eggs and a lower percentage of dead embryos were observed in groups that had been warmed. Moreover, a higher percentage of hatchability was observed in pre-incubated groups, which matters in large-scale production and enables a more efficient production of goslings. A positive effect of the process of pre-incubation on the synchronization of hatching was also observed. In the pre-incubated groups, goslings hatched simultaneously, which suggests full synchronization of the process of hatching. Pre-incubation as an additional treatment during incubation can result in an increase in the hatchability rates of eggs and hatching of goslings, which seems to be justified in case of this species due to low hatchability rates.

Accumulation of metals in selected tissues and organs of laying hens in various ages 

Renata Muchacka, Ewa Sosnówka-Czajka, Iwona Skomorucha, Agnieszka Greń, Edyta Kapusta, Magdalena Semla, Martyna Błaszczyk

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the changes of content of Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni and Fe in tissues and organs of chicks, pullets and adult laying hens. The birds were reared from the first day after hatching in the litter system and had no outdoor access. They were fed ad libitum standard diets based on concentrates for chicks, pullets and laying hens and had free access to water throughout the experiment. On day 4, in weeks: 7 and 52 of the experiment, organs and tissues (liver, stomach, breast muscle, and leg muscle) were collected to determine the level of selected metals. In addition, feed samples corresponding to the age group were tested. The contents of elements were determined using AAS. Based on the obtained results it was found that the level of each metal is different depending on the age of the birds and on the tested organ or tissue. Higher levels of Cd and certain trace elements in chicks’ tissues can be explained by the rapid growth and development, and rapid biochemical changes that occur in the body and/or contamination of hatching eggs. In addition, the chicks have not yet developed system of detoxification. Moreover, the developing tissues and organs increase their volume which results in their lower elements concentrations in older birds. Our studies confirm very slight exposure of birds in this type of farming to excess elements.

Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of Polish Konik horses maintained in the reserve and stable system in Central-Eastern Poland 

Michał Pluta, Zbigniew Osiński, Angelika Cieśla, Ryszard Kolstrung

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of genetic diversity on the features like breeding, performance parameters and adaptation to living in natural habitat resulting from the particular degree of consanguinity to primitive horses of the Polish Konik breed. Selected features were also evaluated with the reference to chosen breeding lines as an indication of the effect of breeding progress during a long period of time. Additionally, the assessment of interaction between environmental and genetic factors was made. The study involved 257 Polish Konik horses (two herds), inhabiting in the breeding centre, where the conditions similar to natural for population of primitive horses originally inhabited Europe were provided. During the conducted study the statistically significant effect of the degree of consanguinity on chest circumference and the greatest dispersion of point-scale estimation ("bonitation") results of horses with higher inbreeding coefficient degree F ≥ 15% was shown. We indicated that the value of F = 15% is in fact a limit, from which the negative impact of homozygosity on the traits associated with the phenotype of primitive horse breed, the Polish Konik, starts to increase. As shown in the analysis of breeding lines, in the long term to maintain the appropriate breed traits associated with the body structure increased heterozygisity is more privileged.

Time of lying in the horse with regard to its sex and system of management 

Anna Stachurska, Natalia Kowalska, Ryszard Kolstrung, Michał Pluta

Abstract. The objective of the study was to determine demands for lying in adult horse males and females, as well as in females maintained under various systems. 43 horses were studied in three centres. Time of lying was measured in 24 hours divided into four periods: night (24:00–6:00), morning (6:00–12:00), afternoon (12:00–18:00) and evening (18:00–24:00). One ANOVA GLM analysis concerned the horse sex (males; females) and another the system of management (tie stalls; open area in a stable; paddocks; pastures). Females lay down twice as long as males. Females lay down at night for 90% of the total time of lying (116.6 ±50.6 min), whereas males lay down almost exclusively at night (62.3 ±24.3 min). Lying time of mares kept in tie stalls was shorter than in the open area in the stable or outdoors. In the afternoon and evening, housed mares lay longer than outdoor mares. To preserve welfare conditions, the husbandry system should regard horses’ demands for lying. Since the lying position occurs in long periods mainly at night, and comes in bouts, horses should not be disturbed at this time. Mares should have possibility for longer lying than stallions and geldings.

The composition and physicochemical properties of colostrum in Black-and-White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, Montbéliarde cows and their crossbreeds 

Edyta Wojtas, Andrzej Zachwieja

Abstract. The study involved 32 cows, including 13 Black-and-White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, 6 Montbéliarde cows and 13 crossbred cows. Material for the study included samples of colostrum, which were analysed for basic components, somatic cell count, total bacteria count, immunoglobulin G1 concentration and physicochemical properties. In contrast to Polish Holstein-Friesian and Montbéliarde breeds, the colostrum of crossbred cows contained higher levels of dry matter, protein and fat, as well as lower lactose levels both in the first and the third milkings. Additionally, in the colostrum of these cows the level of titratable acidity, total bacteria count, somatic cell count, density, resistance and coagulation were higher, while active acidity and thermostability were lower. The immunoglobulin G1 concentration in the colostrum of crossbred cows showed greater stability on the first day when compared to Polish Holstein-Friesian and Montbéliarde breeds.