ISSN 1644-0714 e-ISSN 2300-6145

Zootechnica

Volume 14(4), 2015

Original Research Articles

Application of sheep wool in preventing damage caused by deer in young forest plantations 

Henryka Bernacka, Natasza Święcicka, Natalia Naworska

Abstract. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of sheep wool used as a repellent to protect forest plantations against damages caused by browsing deer. The analysis involved forest plantations protected with the wool of Wrzosówka sheep as well as other plantations. The degree of damage was determined according to documented percentage of damaged plants: up to 20%, from 21 to 50% and more than 50% of damaged shoot tops. In the forest plantations that were unprotected with wool, the surface of deer-made damages increased from year to year, from 60.6 ha in 2008 to 272.71 ha in 2011. The damages were varied in terms of degree and number of damaged shoots of the seedlings. Application of sheep wool in forest plantation protection may represent an alternative to noxious chemicals.

Intramuscular fat content in the masseter muscle (musculus masseter) of cattle depending on sex and age 

Joanna Bogucka, Mariusz Bogucki, Tomasz Nowicki

Abstract. The objective of the experiment was to determine the amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) in the masseter muscle (musculus masseter) of slaughter cattle depending on sex and age. Subjects were 40 cattle (7 cows older than 5 years, 12 heifers and 21 bulls aged around 24 months). After slaughter, muscle samples were collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen samples were cut into 10 µm sections on a cryostat. Next, the sections were placed on a glass slide and stained with Oil Red to determine the intramuscular fat content. The study showed that the masseter muscle in the studied population of slaughter cattle had a relatively low proportion of intramuscular fat (1.84% on average). IMF level was highest in heifers, 2.26%, and lowest in bulls, 1.48% (P  ≤  0.05). The age of the experimental animals had no significant effect on intramuscular adipose tissue content in the masseter muscle.

The quality of honey bee queens from queen cells incubated at different temperatures 

Bożena Chuda-Mickiewicz, Jerzy Samborski

Abstract. The effect of capped queen cell incubation temperature on the quality of honey bee queens was examined. It was shown that the period of pre-imaginal development in the queen bees from queen cells incubated at 32°C was longer by 1 day and 3 hours when compared to those being incubated at 34.5°C, for which this period amounted to 16 days and 1 hour. On the other hand, the quality of queens from cells incubated at 32°C and 34.5°C was similar, they did not differ in body weight, spermathecal volume, ovariole number in both ovaries, or onset of oviposition.

The effect of Animal-Assisted Activities (AAA) involving a dog on pre-school children in the light of their parents’ opinions 

Angelika Cieśla, Justyna Mazan

Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of activities with dogs (AAA) on pre-school children in the light of their parents’ opinions. The study was performed based on a questionnaire addressed to the parents of a group of 18 children participating in pre-school activities at the Youth Centre in Szczecin. Based on the questionnaire completed by the parents of children participating in the activities involving a dog, it is possible to conclude that this type of meetings have a definitely positive effect on many aspects of the functioning of children. All the surveyed parents think that these activities positively affect the well-being of their children and the formation of positive emotions. Ninety five percent of the respondents think that a dog motivates a child to perform various tasks and exercises, while among positive changes being observed after these activities with a dog the parents most often name a disposition to greater physical activity, better contact with peers, increased sense of safety and self-confidence, improved concentration of attention and emotional calmness of children. These activities are very popular among children and enjoy great satisfaction among their parents. The responds referring to the type of activities and the characteristics of a therapy dog are evidence of the fact that the parents are well informed on the issues of canine-assisted therapy, which may signal a growing awareness among our society. These observations show that the activities involving animals (AAA-type ones) are not only useful in the rehabilitation of people with disabilities but also bring a number of benefits in the work with children with normal intellectual and physical development, contributing the same to better development of all areas of the child’s functioning.

Analysis of selected hematological and biochemical parameters of blood of Limousin calves in the early neonatal period 

Radosław Drozd, Anna Kirdzik, Dorota Jankowiak

Abstract. The study involved a group of the Limousin breed calves to check changes in selected hematological and biochemical indices of blood as the number of red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit index (HCT), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) parameters, the total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), concentrations of Fe and antioxidant status in the first ten days of neonatal period. In the analyzed period was found in blood of heifers increase of RBC value compared to the bulls group. The Hb and HCT indices were reduced systematically in time, regardless of gender. The values of TIBC increased steadily, while the degree of saturation of transferrin by iron (TS%) was reduced with decreasing of the plasma Fe concentration. It was also noticed downward trend in plasma antioxidant capacity value of studied calves. The observed changes in analyzed parameters of blood indicate on increased requirements of Limousin claves for iron supply in first days of life.

The effect of consumption of broiler chicken meat with limited pre-slaughter stress on the natural resistance in people 

Stepan Grabovskyi, Jaroslav Kyryliv, Oleksandra Grabovska

Abstract. The data on some immunity indices in human blood after consumption of broiler chickens meat using natural immunomodulators of pre-slaughter stress are presented in the article. Spleen extract (1.4 ml of 70% alcohol solution per chicken) was added to the diet of broiler chickens of experimental groups by aerosol method. The 70-% alcohol solution in the same volume and the same method was added to the diet of broiler chickens of control group five days before slaughter. The results obtained can be used in studies on natural resistance indices in farm animals, in order to improve the organism resistance, correction and to avoid pre-slaughter stress and improve product quality.

The effect of different 12-hour pre-slaughter fasting regimes on selected slaughter traits haematological parameters and blood mineral concentrations in broiler chicken 

Małgorzata Jakubowska, Józefa Gardzielewska, Tadeusz Karamucki, Artur Rybarczyk, Beata Byczkowska

Abstract. The study aimed at determination of the effect of 12-hour fasting on the slaughter value and the level of haematological and mineral indices in the blood of broiler chickens. The study was conducted on 6-week-old Hybro commercial crossbred chickens with an even sex ratio (1:1), divided into 3 groups, 40 individuals each. Group I had access to feed and water for the entire 12-hours experiment, group II was deprived of feed but had access to water, whereas group III was deprived of both food and water for the whole 12 hours. Blood was sampled at the same time as the slaughter, with the following parameters being assayed in the whole blood: haemoglobin level (Hb), haematocrite value (Ht) and K+, Na+, Cl concentration, whereas Ca, Mg, P contents was checked in the blood serum. The body weight of chickens was determined before and after fasting, whereas liver weight and breast muscle pH were checked after 15 minutes after slaughter. The conducted examination showed that chicken body and liver weights were significantly lower in the groups exposed to fasting. Feed and water deprivation in the examined birds did not affect the breast muscle pH after 15 minutes from the slaughter. The pH of breast muscles measured 15 minutes after slaughter was typical for good quality meat, which points to lack of disturbances in post-slaughter transformations in chicken breast muscles due to stress connected with a 12-hour fasting. The applied fasting induced a significant increase in the concentration of chlorine ions in blood. In case of magnesium, differences were found only between experimental groups. Its level in group III was the lowest, whereas in group II the highest compared to the other examined groups.

The influence of imported stallions on the population of Polish cold-blooded horses exemplified on Swedish Arden Rolltan 

Ewa Jastrzębska, Katarzyna Wolińska, Adriana Pawelec, Agnieszka Kondratiuk

Abstract. The population of Polish cold-blooded horses has been bred on the basis of native female material using western cold-blooded stallions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of imported cold-blooded stallions on the Polish cold-blooded horses population on the example of the Swedish Arden – stallion Rolltan. The study involved the offspring of stallion Rolltan, Swedish Arden, a total of 63 stallions and 67 mares, born in Poland in 1989–2006. For comparative purposes, the analysis included also the offspring of 9 selected stallions of Polish cold-blooded horse, a total of 149 males and 248 females. The analysis of the exterior has shown higher average values at chest circumference by 2.4 cm and cannon circumference by 0.4 cm in Rolltan’s sons and higher average values at withers height by 0.1 cm, chest circumference by 2.1 cm and cannon circumference by 0.2 cm in Rolltan’s daughters than in the offspring of the selected stallions of Polish cold-blooded horses. A higher bonitation score of Rolltan’s sons by 0.3 points and daughters by 0.5 points indicates that they had better conformation and movement than the offspring of selected stallions of Polish cold-blooded horses. The analyses showed also the occurrence of different coat colors specific to cold-blooded horses, mainly chestnut and bay. Results of the study, years of experience of the authors of the present study and the views of people associated with the horse breeding practice enable concluding that the breeding of Polish cold-blooded horses should be supplied with imported Swedish Arden stallions of good quality.

Identification of FecXO mutation in the BMP15 gene in prolific Olkuska sheep 

Mirosław Kucharski, Urszula Kaczor, Andrzej Kaczor

Abstract. Abstract: The A1009C (N69H) mutation at the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) gene locus located on the X chromosome, which is considered a major gene, contributes to an increase in the number of lambs per litter. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of A1009C polymorphism at the BMP15 gene locus in prolific Olkuska ewes from two flocks originating from southern Poland. Flocks with a similar ewe prolificacy of 2.21 and 2.54 lambs/litter were found to differ in the frequency of animals with CC and AA homozygous genotypes. In the simulated matings of the ewes over 3 years with a ram carrying the mutation, frequency of the CC (FecXO/FecXO) genotype increased by around 14 percentage units without increasing the number of heterozygous animals. It should be stressed that the rams carrying the FecXO mutation, due to location of the BMP15 gene on the X chromosome, will give the valuable gene to every daughter. When choosing breeding rams for their flocks, breeders of Olkuska sheep should identify their genotype at the BMP15 locus.

Assessment of external appearance of Black-Motley cows 

Mariа Kohut

Abstract. The research was conducted on first-calf heifers of Black-Motley breed of Lviv region and consisted in the assessment of their body conformation by type according to a guide [Instruction classification… 2012]. Results of the linear classification of animals showed body conformation differences among cattle of dairy type, which points to the necessity of further selective breeding to improve its external appearance. Characteristics of various cows that are descendants of Black-Motley bulls were assessed. The analysis of obtained results concerning external appearance characteristics showed that the studied animals had average height, while the tallest ones were descendants of a Derby bull. The descendants of Starbuck and Sheriff bulls had inborn errors such as a sloping rump, while those of Sheriff and Softwar bulls had poor fore udder attachment. The main drawback of the entire herd is highly raised rumps in Softwar and Sheriff descendants. However, it is worth noting that all of the descendants had a correct form of teats that were of cylindrical and conical shape and of average length with an optimum position of udder quarters in the middle.

Effect of chicken breed and storage conditions of eggs on their quality 

Józefa Krawczyk, Zofia Sokołowicz

Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of eggs stored in different conditions for 28 days after oviposition. The eggs were produced by two breeds of hens covered by the gene-pool protection programme, and by commercial hybrids. The experiment used eggs from Greenleg Partridge (line Z-11) and Rhode Island White hens (line A-33) and Hy-Line commercial hybrids. Sixty class M eggs were collected from each breed and divided into three groups. Group I contained fresh eggs which were weighed and evaluated for quality on the first day after oviposition. In group II, eggs were stored in a cool room for 28 days at an average temperature of 14C and humidity of 39–46%. Group III were eggs refrigerated for 28 days at an average temperature of 5.5C and humidity of 29–36%. Regardless of bird’s genotype, egg weight was found to decrease and egg yolk percentage to increase as a result of storing the eggs for 28 days. Storage of eggs contributed to decreasing the height of thick albumen and Haugh units (HU). Egg storage caused no significant changes in shell breaking strength. The effect of storage on reducing egg quality characteristics was much lower for Hy-Line hens compared to hens from the protected populations: Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island White (A-33).

Evaluation of meat and fat content of crossbred gilts obtained from multidirectional crossing of Polish Large White and Polish Landrace breeds obtained in the breeding area of Kujawy-Pomorze region 

Grażyna Michalska, Jerzy Nowachowicz, Tomasz Bucek, Przemysław Dariusz Wasilewski, Małgorzata Kmiecik

Abstract. The aim of research was the analysis of meat and fat content in two groups of crossbred gilts (52.024 individuals) produced in The Kujawy-Pomorze Breeding Region in years 2009–2013 and performance tested according to obligatory methodology. Gilts came from two crossing variants of Polish Large White (PLW) and Polish Landrace (PL) breeds: [PLW x PL] and [PL x PLW], where the sow’s breed was given at first position and boar’s breed at second position. It should be noticed that in analysed years, fat content measured as backfat thickness in P2 and P4 points decreased and the height of loin eye and meat content increased in both groups of crossbred gilts i.e. [PLW x PL] and [PL x PLW]. Efficient improvement in range of meat and fat content of crossbred gilts [PLW x PL] and [PL x PLW] produced in The Kujawy-Pomorze Breeding Region and being the component used in breeding and commercial crossing of pigs is still recommended and should be monitored in the following years.

Effect of season and production system on bovine milk fat content and dispersion 

Barbara Mróz, Alina Górska, Alina Adamiak

Abstract. We analyzed the effect of dairy cows management system and season on milk fat content and dispersion. The milk was collected from HF cows, Black-and-White variety, managed in 7 production farms located in central-eastern Poland. Two of the farms managed the cows in confinement (total 60 cows), whereas five other farms managed the cows in a traditional way (total 75 cows). Milk was sampled from individual cows separately during summer and winter seasons. In summer, 51 samples were collected, whereas in winter – 84 milk samples. In all, we have collected 135 milk samples. Each sample was analyzed for percentage fat content and the number and diameter of fat globules. Comparing the results of the two studied seasons studies it was found that during summer cows produce milk with a lower fat content (4.2%), though containing a higher number of fat globules in 1 ml (4.4 billion), as compared to the winter season (respectively, 4.6% and 3 billion). The differences in the percentage of fat were significant at P ≥ 0.01, while those in the number of fat globules were significant at the level of P ≥ 0.05. During the summer, we also observed a smaller percentage (6%) of the largest fat globules, i.e. those >6 µm in diameter, compared to winter (10.3%). The differences, however, were statistically non-significant. Analyzing the results of the two management systems, we noted that the cows housed in the traditional system produced milk with a lower fat percentage (4.3%) and containing more fat globules in 1 ml (3.8 billion), as compared to confinement housing (respectively, 4.5% and 3.4 billion). The differences in the percentage fat content were significant at P ≥ 0.05, while differences in the number of fat globules at P ≥ 0.01. Milk from cows managed in the traditional system was characterized by a lower content (8%) of large fat globules compared to milk of cows housed in confinement, where the such globules represented 9.2%. The differences were non-significant.

Influence of the EMTM series probiotic agents on the results of rearing of Polish Holstein-Friesian calves 

Małgorzata Szewczuk, Piotr Nowik, Katarzyna Olejnik, Leszek Jędrych, Wojciech Kruszyński

Abstract. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the influence of the Effective Microorganisms (EMTM) probiotic agents on the result of calves rearing during the first 6 months of life. The study included 50 Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian (PBWHF) heifers, of which 25 were in the experimental group (EXP) and 25 in the control group (C). Starting on the second day of life the calves received the EMTM Probiotic, firstly added to the colostrum and later to milk. Starting on the 14th day of life the calves received the EMTM – Bokashi Probiotic in the CJ feed. The calves were kept in booths, previously sprayed with EMTM Refresh solution. The calves were weighted after birth as well as in the 30th, 60th, 90th and 180th day of rearing. The obtained data allowed calculation of daily mass gains. Throughout the study there was also health assessment carried out. In each of the rearing stages the mean body masses and daily mass gains were significantly higher in the experimental group (EXP) than in the control group (C). There was no diseases observed in the EXP calves between birth and 6th month of life, whilst digestive system disorders as well as pneumonia were observed in the control group.