ISSN 1644-0714 e-ISSN 2300-6145

Zootechnica

Volume 14(3), 2015

Review Articles

Protected lipids and fatty acids in cattle feed rations 

Sergiy Pavkovych, Stakh Vovk, Barna Kruzhel

Abstract. Application of supplements of protected fats and polyenoic fatty acids of vegetable origin in a diet of different age and productive groups of cattle stimulates metabolism in the animals', increases their productivity and improves quality of milk and beef. Supplements of calcium salts of fatty acids, made of sunflower, soybean, rape, flax and palm oils are the most effective in a diet of young animals and cattle.

Original Research Articles

Effect of cereal grain type used in diets on the fattening performance and slaughter value of pigs 

Teresa Banaszkiewicz, Karol Kaszperuk, Teresa Bombik

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate production performance, carcass yields, and pork quality of pigs fed diets including barley and triticale. The experiment involved 16 growing pigs obtained from the Danish DanAvI breeding system, in 2 groups, 8 pigs each (4 gilts and 4 barrows). The feeding trial took 74 days. The control pigs were offered diets containing ground barley, whereas the test pigs were fed ground triticale. Body weight, feed conversion, pork yield as well as heart and liver weights were determined. After cooling, the right side of the carcass was measured for length and backfat thickness, which was followed by fabrication. Body weight gains, feed intake, and cold dressing percentage within groups did not vary significantly. Also differences in carcass meat content (60.1% - control, 57.2% - test group) were statistically non-significant. The control pigs (fed barley) had significantly larger livers (1.52% of body weight); however, carcass lengths and backfat thickness were similar within groups. Loin dissection analysis revealed a significantly higher percentage of meat in test pigs, i.e. those fed the diet with ground triticale (52%). No significant differences were found between groups in terms of sensory evaluation. Triticale may represent a complete replacement for barley in diets for growing pigs, due to its positive effects on the performance and slaughter traits that are important from the consumer's standpoint.

Influence of feeding with non-greased feed mixtures during the first weeks of young slaughter turkeys' lives on their performance under subsequent extensive rearing conditions  

Justyna Batkowska, Antoni Brodacki

Abstract. The aim of the research was to compare the effects of rearing slaughter turkeys fed with non-greased (N-G) and greased (G) full-portion feedstuff mixtures in their first 8 wks of life and then maintained extensively from 9th to 20th week of rearing. From 9th wk of rearing the birds from both groups where moved inside a building with access to fowl-runs and fed with limited balanced mixtures as well as crushed wheat, wheat bran, green forage and steam potatoes. Differences in average body weight were statistically significant for turkey-cocks from the 7th and for turkey-hens from the 11th week to the end of rearing. The birds fed with mixtures without dietary fat were significantly heavier. During the whole rearing period N-G groups showed less FCR than G groups. Better livability of these birds during the initial period of rearing was noticed. European Efficiency Index estimated for turkey-hens and turkey-cocks was significantly better in N-G groups than in G groups. Considerably bigger share of abdominal fat pad in body weight of G group of birds could result from the its more intensive operation connected with fat additive. Additionally, dietary fat administered during the initial rearing period may contribute to carcass fatness, what is confirmed by bigger proportion of abdominal fat pad in birds of G than in N-G groups. The unequivocal differentiation in case of the proportion of particular carcass elements depending on feeding and birds sex was not observed. The presented investigations show that dietary fat addition to full-portioned feedstuff mixtures at the beginning of rearing should be limited if subsequent fattening is held with the use of farm fodders.

Influence of lactose supplementation in milk replacer on the blood plasma levels of selected micro- and macroelements in calves 

Alicja Dratwa-Chłupnik, Katarzyna Michałek, Andrzej Olszewski

Abstract. Milk replacer overfeeding increases lactose supply, which leads to osmotic diarrhea. Changes in the status of selected micro- and macroelements are observed in calves with diarrhea caused by various pathogenic factors. There is very few data on changes in various blood parameters in calves in response to lactose administration. The primary aim of this study was to search for plasma mineral management indicators that could be used to make a rapid diagnosis of the cause of diarrhea. The experiment was carried out on 8 Polish Holstein-Friesian var. Black-and-White male calves at age two and three weeks. Calves were fed milk replacer. The diet was twice supplemented with lactose in the amount of 1 g ∙ kg–1 of body weight. The plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron were measured before and after lactose was added. In both age groups, milk replacer with lactose addition most likely increased the passage of the gastric contents and additional water loss in feces. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that zinc may be considered as a potential diagnostic indicator of the cause of diarrhea. A decrease in plasma zinc concentrations accompanied by an increase in plasma copper values have been observed in response to excessive lactose supply. A decrease in plasma zinc concentrations in two- and three-week-old calves during diarrhea, along with relatively stable values of other micro- and macroelements, may indicate an excess of lactose in milk replacer or an oversupply of milk replacer.

Hatchability of the common pheasant depending on egg storage time prior to incubation 

Joanna Kuźniacka, Marek Adamski, Emilia Kowalska, Joanna Kucharska

Abstract. Pheasant eggs were divided based on storing time before incubating. The groups were from 1 to 2 days, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, 7 to 9 and 10 to 11 days. The lowest losses (14.3%) in the period between incubating and day 21 of hatching were observed for eggs stored for 3 to 4 days. For this group the highest weight of chicks and their percentage share to egg’s weight (respectively 21.5 g and 66.8%) was also noted. The best fertility (94.7%) in hatchability of healthy chicks from incubated and fertilized eggs (respectively 80.1 and 75.8%) was observed for 3, 4-day eggs and those stored for 5, 6 days. In groups of eggs stored for a longer period before incubating (over 7 days), eggs fertility and chicks hatchability indices, along with prolonging storing period, decreased. At the same time, for eggs kept for more than 10 days, the share of dead embryos increased and was from 12.7% of set eggs to 15.6% of fertilized eggs.

Liver content of fatty acids and reproductive indices of carp in relation to level of dietary vitamin A 

Miroslava B. Maletich, Josip F. Rivis

Abstract. We investigated the effect of increased amounts of vitamin A in the diet of spawning carp on the content of fatty acids of the total lipids in the liver, as well as the reproductive ability of the fish. The experiment was conducted in the prespawning period in three groups of carp. The control group were offered the standard granulated mixed fodder. The test groups were additionally administered retinyl acetate added to the diet. It was established that in both females and males liver of the test groups, which received higher amounts of vitamin A, the content of fatty acids of total lipids increased. In the liver of the test groups carp, the increases were due to saturated fatty acids with an even and odd number of carbon atoms in the chain, monounsaturated fatty acid of families n-7 and n-9, and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 and n-6 families. The test group females, which were given vitamin A in quantities of 2500 and 5000 IE/kg feed, showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in both working and relative fecundity. The males had also an increased volume of milt. The supplementation also significantly and dose-dependently increased the percentage of larvae per spawned eggs.

Prediction of the Fattening Performance of Young Slaughter Cattle Based on Selected Live Animal Measurements 

Paulina Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Zenon Nogalski, Ireneusz Białobrzewski, Zofia Wielgosz-Groth, Monika Sobczuk-Szul

Abstract. The objective of the study was to determine the possibility for early prediction of the fattening ability of young crossbred beef bulls using multiple regression equations developed on the basis of selected live animal measurements. The experimental material comprised 96 young crossbred beef bulls being the offspring of Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and beef bulls (Limousin, Hereford and Charolaise). At the age of 6 months, at the introduction of the animals into semi-intensive fattening system lasting for 12 months, live animal measurements were performed. Using a stepwise regression method, prediction equations were derived: average daily gain (ADG), dry matter conversion, crude protein conversion, net energy conversion per 1 kg body weight gain. The highest predictive values are provided by the equation estimating ADG. The application thereof in practice allows the acceptably accurate estimation, at the age of 6 months, of the rate of body weight gains of young bulls fattened semi-intensively until the 540th day of age, and the selection of calves for fattening on this basis.

Principal component analysis in assessment of relations to some pelleted feed characteristics 

Marek Rynkiewicz, Marek Śnieg

Abstract. The paper describes the study of three feed mixtures, from which pelleted feed was produced. The main components of examined feed were wheat, corn and soybeans. Different proportions of components and varying degrees of fragmentation (0.6, 0.7 and 1.6 mm) enabled to obtain nine feedingstuffs, which differ in composition, degree of fragmentation, bulk and tapped density. The quality of feed pellets was determined by the pellet durability index, their average length and the amount of broken pellets. The statistical tests principal components analysis method was used. They were two principal components, which explained 91.11% of the variability of input data, with the loss of information at the level of 8.89%. Also 4 groups of feed with similar physical properties were determinated.

Comparison of growth rate and body weight of ducks of different origins 

Kamil Stęczny, Joanna Kuźniacka, Marek Adamski

Abstract. The aim of the study was to compare growth rate and body weight of Pekin and Muscovy ducks and their hybrids (mulards). It was established that up to week 6 of living inclusive, Pekin ducks weighed more compared to Muscovy ducks and mulards, differences were confirmed statistically. From week 1 to 7 of living, mulards had significantly lowest body weight compared to ducks from other two groups. Pekin ducks showed significantly highest body weight gain between weeks 3 and 4 of living, and for Muscovy ducks of both sexes it was between weeks 4 and 5 of breeding. On the other hand, for mulards the highest gains of body weight was observed between weeks 5 and 6 of living. In all groups of ducks the highest growth rate was noted between weeks 1 and 2 (from 100 to 119%). After week 3 of living, intensity of Pekin ducks’ growth decreased from 38 to 9% between weeks 7 and 8, for Muscovy drakes from 43 to 2% between weeks 11 and 12, for Muscovy ducks from 46 to 3% between weeks 9 and 10 and for mulard ducks from 46 to 5% between weeks 9 and 10 of living.

Contamination with microscopic fungi and their metabolites in chicken feeds produced in western Poland in the years 2009–2010 

Kinga Stuper, Renata Cegielska-Radziejewska, Tomasz Szablewski, Anna Ostrowska, Maciej Buśko, Juliusz Perkowski

Abstract. The aim of this study was to assess the level of contamination in feed mixes for broiler chickens produced in four commercial-scale feed mills located in western Poland in the years 2009–2010. Quality appraisal and quantitative analyses of feed contamination with microscopic fungi and trichothecenes were conducted in this study. It was found that starter type feeds were significantly less contaminated with microscopic fungi and mycotoxins than feed mixes for older chickens. In 2009 higher levels of contamination with the determined microorganisms and their toxic metabolites were found in feeds than it was in 2010. In terms of quality in the analysed feed samples the most frequently identified microscopic fungi were moulds from the genera Aspergillus, Rhisopus and Mucor. Among the detected mycotoxins DON, DAS, 3-AcDON and Fus-X were detected most frequently. The admissible DON contamination level imposed by the EU regulations was not exceeded in any of the analysed feed samples.