ISSN 1644-0714 e-ISSN 2300-6145

Zootechnica

Volume 14(2), 2015

Review Articles

Beef cattle breeding in Ukraine 

Renata Pilarczyk, Stakh Vovk, Barna Kruzhel

Abstract. The most of Ukrainian cattle is obtained through fattening the calves deriving from the dairy cows. During the last two decades, due to the reduction in local cattle population, the beef production has drastically decreased and most of the meat comes from the import. The problem of low beef production can be solved only through developing the beef cattle farming and creating the new beef breeds. The first four national Ukrainian breeds (Ukrainian Beef, Volyn Meat, Poliska Beef and Southern) and one Znamenski type of Poliska Beef were created as well as development of Ukrainian Beef Simmental is at the final stage. The largest populations of beef cattle in Ukraine in January 2012 were the Aberdeen Angus (30%) and Volyn Meat (28%) and then Poliska Beef (16%) and Simmental (9%). The largest populations of beef cattle are located in the following districts: Volyn (26%), Czernihow (11%), Rivne (10%), Lviv (8%), Khmelnytskyi and Zhytomyr (7%).

Conditions for the development of ecological agriculture in western Ukraine against Polish experience 

Stakh Vovk

Abstract. Ukraine ranks second in Europe (after Russia) in terms of the agricultural land. Approximately 70% of the country area (41.5 million hectares) is agricultural land, of which 32 million hectares are arable land. Serbia (0.1%), Ukraine (0.7%), Moldova (0.9%) and Macedonia (1.2%) are the non-EU countries with the lowest percentage of ecological farmland in relation to agricultural land. Ukraine has a great potential in the production of organically grown food. There is a need for environmentally friendly products, but organic food market is just beginning to develop. In Ukraine, the surface area of agricultural land used for organic production increases every year. A similar situation was observed also in Poland. The number of organic products offered on the Ukrainian market is limited. In Ukraine, the market for organic products began to develop only at the beginning of 2000. Most of the Ukrainian organic farms are located in areas of Odessa, Cherson, Poltava, Vinnitsa, Transcarpathia, Lviv, Ternopil and Zhitomir. Ukrainian organic farms can become more competitive in the future for the European market. Favorable natural conditions for the development of this type of agriculture and increasing demand for organic products are an opportunity for Ukrainian agriculture. Today, Ukraine ranks first in Eastern Europe in respect of organic acreage.

Original Research Articles

Assessment of ultraviolet light effect in hatching eggs disinfection on hatchability traits of two breeds of quails and chickens 

Karrar I.A. Al-Shammari, Justyna Batkowska, Magdalena M. Gryzińska

Abstract. This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of ultraviolet light (UV) (262 nm, 10 mW ∙ cm–2) used as a disinfectant of hatching eggs for two breeds of chicken; Greenleg Partridge (GP) and Polbar (Pb) and two strains of quails: meat type (MTQ) and laying type (LTQ). Fertility, hatchability, periodical and total mortality of the set were established. Totally, 720 hatching eggs for all breeds: GP, Pb, MTQ and LTQ, 180 eggs per each breed were randomly divided into 3 groups each. The 1st group was negative control (NC), without disinfection, the 2nd group were control (F), fumigated with formaldehyde gas eggs, 3rd group were eggs exposed to UV at for 30 minutes (UV). Then eggs were hatched artificially using a BIOS hatching apparatus under standard conditions of incubation. The results revealed that eggs disinfected with UV did not significantly differ significantly in hatchability and total mortality from NC and F eggs in each strains of both, hen and quail eggs. 1st and 2nd periodical embryonic mortality was not significantly differ between groups in GP, Pb, LTQ but in 1st embryonic mortality the overall quail eggs was effected (P  ≤  0.01) by UV group. In 2nd embryonic mortality, UV was significantly lesser intensive (P  ≤  0.05) in MTQ. According to these the documented results, using UV as a disinfectant for hatching eggs could be potentially as safe disinfectant as formaldehyde without any negative and detrimental effect on hatchability and embryonic development.

Changes of certain quality characteristics of Guinea fowl’s eggs depending on storage conditions  

Dorota Banaszewska, Teresa Bombik, Anna Wereszczyńska, Barbara Biesiada-Drzazga, Krzysztof Kuśmierczyk

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to assess the chosen quality characteristics of guinea fowl’s eggs as well as the influence of storage length and conditions on these features. The study material consisted of 50 grey guinea fowls kept in free range. The first study group consisted of eggs assessed as fresh ones two days after laying (10 eggs). The remaining 40 eggs were divided into two groups, 20 eggs in each. One of them was stored in a fridge at 6°C whilst the other was stored at a room temperature (24°C). The analysis was conducted on ten eggs from the two groups after 14 days and on the remaining ten eggs from each group after 28 days. The mean mass of the analysed eggs ranged from 42.10 to 43.11 g and the shape index ranged from 1.18 to 1.29. In the fresh eggs the shell constituted 15.63%, protein 51.66% and yolk 32.71% of the mass. During storage there were changes observed in morphological content: the yolk proportion increased and the egg white decreased. Also the eggs’ mass decreased significantly, whilst the air cell size increased. The length of the storage period and temperature conditions influenced certain characteristics of eggs’ components, including the area of dense white spread, an increase in yolk diameter and a decrease in its height.

Characterization of table eggs-producing organic farms in Lublin Voivodeship 

Elżbieta Bombik, Katarzyna Łagowska, Marcin Różewicz, Małgorzata Bednarczyk-Szurmak

Abstract. The aim of this study was to analyze organic farms involved in the production of table eggs in the Lublin Voivodeship. The survey was performed by the use of a questionnaire in 5 farms located in the counties of Łęczna, Puławy, and Ryki. The analysis of the data shows the main reasons for undertaking organic poultry production included the low cost of purchase of animals, adaptability of buildings and chicken runs and marketability of the products (eggs and meat). The age of the owners of the surveyed farms ranged from 30 to 40 years (80% of respondents) and from 40 to 50 years (20% of respondents). The farms are run by men with families. 80% of respondents had secondary education, and 20% higher education with a specialization in agri-tourism. The average area of the farms was 14.2 ha. The crops were mainly grain, from 46.7 to 100%. There were farm-gate sales of vegetables, fruit and eggs. Some also offered milk and dairy products, as well as processed fruit and vegetables. All the farms focused on the production of chicken eggs, though. Greenleg Partridge was among breeds of chickens managed in all farms. New chicks for all the surveyed farms were purchased in a hatchery or from another organic farm. In most of the farms the flocks were at the level of 100 to 300 hens. Egg production ranged from 90 to 125 eggs per hens. Hens were fed in the traditional way, using organic, on-farm produced feeds. Birds had access to chicken runs. Hens were kept in brick chicken houses on litter bedding. All respondents answered that the marketing of the produce (eggs) is promoted through customer recommendations. They stressed that regular customers, who were from 70 to 90% of the buyers, often bring in new people willing to buy organic produce. All the organic farm operators replied that poultry production was profitable.

Analysis of the efficiency of post-electrphoretic protein staining using colloidal Coomassie Blue G-250 

Alicja Dratwa-Chałupnik, Adam Lepczyński, Małgorzata Ożgo, Agnieszka Herosimczyk, Katarzyna Michałek, Magdalena Niemcewicz, Anna Pałyszka, Wiesław Skrzypczak

Abstract. Constant improvements in the technique for the electrophoretic separation of proteins have resulted in development of more sensitive and less time-consuming staining methods. Despite the fact that fluorescent dyes are highly sensitive, classical methods such as silver or coomassie blue still represent very popular staining techniques. However, information concerning the comparison of the same stain but used in different protocols are sparse. Based on the results of many different authors it is difficult to clearly assess the efficiency of staining protocol. Therefore, present study was aimed at evaluating (in respect of sensitivity, simplicity and time of staining procedure and also the degree of environmental hazard) two different staining procedures with Coomassie Blue G-250 for proteins in polyacrylamide gels. A comparison of two CBB-based procedures for staining proteins showed that modified protocol of Pink is much more efficient in protein detection. This staining technique also takes less time to carry out and it is less toxic as it requires no methanol when compared to the Hoving protocol.

Natriuretic and antinatriuretic response to lactose load in one-week-old calves 

Alicja Dratwa-Chałupnik, Katarzyna Michałek, Natalia Borus, Paulina Bogusiewicz

Abstract. The current study was performed to determine the effect of short term administration of milk replacer with excessive amount of lactose on changes in the concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and aldosterone (ALDO) in the blood plasma of one-week-old calves. The experiment was carried out on Polish Holstein-Friesian var. Black-and-White male calves. Animals were fed the milk replacer twice a day in amount of 10% of body weight. In the evening (first day of the experiment) and in the morning (second day of the experiment), monohydrate lactose in amount of 1 g ⋅ kg–1 of body weight was added into the milk replacer. The present study shows the opposite trend of changes of ANP (increase) and ALDO (decrease) in response to administration of lactose with milk replacer formulation. Average concentration of ANP before the administration of lactose was 77.46  pg ⋅ ml–1 and ALDO was 86.28 pg ⋅ ml–1. After the application of lactose, increased concentration of ANP was observed (83.91 pg ⋅ ml–1 after 1st dose of lactose and 81.46 pg ⋅ ml–1 after 2nd dose of lactose) and decreased concentration of ALDO was observed (77.69 pg ⋅ ml–1 after 1st dose of lactose and 70.64 pg ⋅ ml–1 after 2nd dose of lactose). On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that ANP and ALDO effectively respond to lactose load in 1-week-old calves.

Progesterone profile in the sexual cycle of female American mink (Neovison vison) 

Małgorzata Dziadosz-Styś, Beata Seremak, Lidia Felska-Błaszczyk, Bogdan Lasota

Abstract. The aim of this study was to analyze the blood serum levels of progesterone in American mink females in the course of the annual sexual cycle. In order to determine the concentration profile of progesterone in year-old females of two color varieties, Pearl (P) and Standard Black, short NAP (BV), blood was collected from a representative group of 16 randomly selected females. The frequency of blood sampling was variable depending on the phase of the cycle of the studied females. Blood was collected once a month from late May to September (early anestrus), every 14 days from October to December (late anestrus) and in January and February (gonadal preparation and re-activation period). Analysis of the blood serum concentrations of progesterone in female mink indicates a clear downward trend from May to October followed by lowest values ​​remaining until late February.

Comparison of conformation and laying performance of various pheasant species 

Lidia Felska-Błaszczyk, Kamil Pohorecki

Abstract. The aim of this study was to compare body weight and measurements of selected Physianidae species, egg production, egg weight and shape. The study included the common pheasant (emph{Phasianus colchicus}), golden pheasant (emph{Chrysolophus pictus}), yellow golden pheasant (emph{Chrysolophus pictus luteus}), Lady Amherst's pheasant (emph{Chrysolophus amherstiae}) and Reeves's pheasant (emph{Syrmaticus reevesi}). We examined 50 individuals, 10 of each species, and the offspring of yellow golden and Lady Amherst's pheasants, which were weighed at 1, 4, 8, and 20 weeks of age. Measurements of adult pheasants included body weight, body length, and wing and head length. During the breeding season, eggs of the genus emph{Chrysolophus} they were collected, weighed and egg shape index was calculated. Distinct sexual dimorphism in the body weight of young males and females was observed, confirmed statistically for yellow golden pheasants. A number of statistical differences were found in body weight and conformation traits between the species of pheasants and between the sexes within species among adults. The highest body weights were attained by male Reeves's pheasants. The smallest pheasants were yellow golden pheasants, which also produced the highest number of eggs in 2014. Lady Amherst's pheasants laid the largest eggs.

Preliminary analysis of biometrics of Siberian Husky dogs 

Elżbieta Horoszewicz, Marta Król, Roman Niedziółka, Edyta Sweklej

Abstract. In the population of the Siberian Husky breed there are no scientific studies regarding the evaluation of conformation within sex and age of the animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the selected biometric characteristics that are of key importance to the Siberian Husky breed when it comes to working in harness. The study included 13 zoometrical measurements and based on these measurements the 7 conformation indices were defined. The animals were divided into three age groups, I: 10–12 months, II: 24–36 months and III: 4–8 years. The analysis of the results indicated a significant diversity of dogs with regard to sex and age within the study group. In group I, females were heavier than their peers by 15.6%. The adult animals (group III) had a slightly lower body weight than the one that is preferred by most breeders (dogs 28 kg, bitches 23 kg). The index of eurysomia that determines the size of the animal within the sex differentiated (p ≤ 0.05) groups I and II in favour of dogs. Highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) differences were found with regard to the body length index, which was higher in bitches in group I by approximately 20 percentage points. Therefore, as for the zoometrical measurements, the circumference of the chest and the diagonal body length were of key importance. The analysis of the other measurements and indices also showed the differences. These, however, did not disqualify the study group from dog sledding competitions, but could result in their worse results at the start.

Conformation analysis of horses used in equine-assisted activities at Polish hippotherapeutic centers 

Jacek Łojek, Michał Pluta, Angelika Cieśla, Anna Domachowska, Natalia Przybyłowicz, Anna Łojek

Abstract. The objective of the research was to determine the basic conformation traits of horses of different breeds performing hippotherapeutic service at chosen equine therapy centers. The research material included a total of 47 horses from 9 centers: Warsaw (7 horses), Bydgoszcz (6), Lublin and the region (13), Cracow and the region (9), West Pomerania Province (12). The horse groups were formed considering the following parameters: sex (gelding, mare) age (4–9, 10–15,16–24 years of age), breed type (pony, hucul, small and large horse), body size (pony, small). The studies examined three basic zoometric measurements that served as the basis for calculation of conformation indices: massiveness, boniness and overbuilding. It was concluded that the centers under study possess horses, mostly geldings (64%) commonly aged 10–15 years (42.5% of population), whose diverse body size and height allow meeting the needs of the treated patients. Anatomical features of horses and pony-type crossbreds prove to be determinants, to a great extent, of a special predilection of this breed type for hippotherapy. Notable breed variability of horses used in equine therapy programs indicates a necessity of considering a horse breed type while analyzing their suitability for equine-assisted activity in terms of the horse exterior assessment.

Effect of inulin-supplemented diet on quail performance parameters and meat quality 

Danuta Majewska, Danuta Szczerbińska, Zofia Tarasewicz, Małgorzata Jakubowska, Józefa Gardzielewska, Krystyna Romaniszyn, Marek Ligocki

Abstract. This study aimed at evaluation of the effect of inulin-supplemented diet in the rearing period on quail performance parameters and slaughter value. The quails of group 2 and 3 were fed compound feeds containing inulin at a level of 1.5% for 3 and 6 weeks, respectively. The feed for the control group was not supplemented with inulin. The obtained results show that feed supplementation with inulin, regardless of administration time, did not have any effect of quail performance traits, slaughter value and percentage of some organs in body weight. The most favourable percentage of breast with bones and skin was also observed in group 2 (51.35%). Significantly (P  ≤  0.01) lower content of this carcass element in relation to both experimental groups was a characteristic of the birds of the control group (51.35%). In male quails of this group, a significantly (P  ≤  0.01) lower percentage of breast muscle was also observed (27.02%); in groups 2 and 3, these values were 29.93 and 28.41%, respectively. A significantly (P  ≤  0.05) lower cholesterol content per 100 g of the breast meat, in relation to the control group (122.4 mg), was recorded in experimental groups 2 and 3 (116.6 and 114.3 mg, respectively). Feeding with inulin-supplemented feed did not have any effect on the results of physicochemical evaluation and sensory attractiveness of meat and broth.

Differences in the level of urea in milk between standard and extended lactation period and the impact on the environment 

Ewa Salamończyk, Piotr Guliński

Abstract. The N concentration of milk urea is one of several factors that allow prediction of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle manure. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of selected environmental factors on urea content in milk in the standard and extended lactation period in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows of the Black-and-White variety. The study has analysed 30 839 full lactations, which were at least one day longer than the standard 305-day lactation, but not longer than 600 days. The highest percentage of milk samples with optimal protein and urea content was found in extended lactation periods (>305 days). The percentage of milk tested during this period, containing urea from 150 to 270 mg/l, was 49.26%. The calculations also indicated that a significant influence on the differences in the milk urea content between the average standard and extended lactation period had an average daily production of milk in the first 305-day lactation. The higher the efficiency of the cow, the greater the difference in the level of urea in milk in the comparable periods of lactation. On the basis of these data it was estimated that the milk of cows producing on average more than 30 kg of milk per day contained approximately 12 mg/l more of urea in the standard lactation period than the milk of cows from the same group acquired during the extension. Overall, the results demonstrate that the urea content is higher in the milk from the second phase of lactation, in the milk of youngest cows (first to fourth parity), and in the milk of high yielding cows. It was found that the amount of urea in milk during extended lactation period was lower than in the first 10 months after calving. Due to the fact that the longer lactations resulted in lower levels of urea in milk and lower ammonia emission in last weeks of lactation, it was concluded that the full extended lactation had no negative impact on the environment.

Selected meat and fattening features and sperm quality in young purebred and hybrid boars 

Jan Udała, Ewa Kwita, Dariusz Gączarzewicz, Jarosław Kuba, Tomasz Stankiewicz, Barbara Błaszczyk, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak, Małgorzata Bąkowska

Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the selected semen quality features and daily gains and meatiness of boars at the beginning of their reproductive use in one of the animal local artificial insemination centre in Pomerania region, Poland. The study was performed on 158 PLW, PL and Duroc x Pietrain hybrid boars in the age of 9 to 14 months. The following features were analysed: ejaculate volume (cm3), sperm concentration (×106 ⋅ cm–3), percentage of progressive motility sperm, the total number of sperm in the ejaculate, mean standardised daily gain, intravital meatiness and selection index. The study has shown that the semen from hybrids, in comparison to the purebreds, was characterized by the higher concentration and motility of sperm but the mean volume of ejaculate was lower which resulted in the general lower amount of sperm in ejaculates. The hybrids had also the highest daily gains. With the similar meatiness in all the three groups, the highest selection index was noted for the PLW boars. The positive relationships were found between the ejaculate volume, total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate and daily gains, meatiness and selection index. The negative relationships were found for these parameters compared to sperm concentration. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain the good quality boar semen simultaneously with maintaining the correct rate of body growth and meatiness.

Short Communications

The molybdenum content in the muscles of red deer (Cervus elaphus)  

Michał Skibniewski, Ewa M. Skibniewska, Tadeusz Kośla, Marta Kołnierzak

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the molybdenum concentrations in the muscles of red deer hunted in north-eastern Poland. Samples for analysis were collected from 27 females, and metal concentrations were determined using ICP-MS. The resulting data were analyzed for both benefits and potential risks in terms of consumer health. The average concentration of Mo in the muscles was 0.042 ±0.007 mg · kg–1 wet weight. The results obtained were similar to those observed in other species of free-living ruminants and much lower than those found in farmed ruminants. Based on the results of the study, it can be stated that meat of the red deer is not a good source of molybdenum in terms of human nutritional demands. However, it can be treated as an additional source of this micronutrient.