ISSN 1644-0714 e-ISSN 2300-6145

Zootechnica

Volume 14(1), 2015

  1. Title page
  2. Editorial page

Review Articles

Non-surgical contraception in male dogs and cats 

Andrzej Max, Piotr Jurka, Artur Dobrzyński, Tom Rijsselaere

Abstract. Orchiectomy results in irreversible sterility and may trigger a number of side effects such as underdevelopment of external genital organs, disturbances in the musculoskeletal system, obesity, increased risk of diabetes mellitus or hypothyroidism and behavioral problems. Therefore alternative methods of contraception have been developped during the last decades. This paper presents the clinical use of GnRH analogues with agonistic and antagonistic activity, chemical sterilization by intratesticular injections and the application of reproductive toxins, progestins and the possibilities of immunocontraception. The working mechanism, clinical results and possible side effects of these methods are discussed. The methods of non–surgical contraception, used adequately, are currently considered to be simple and effective.

Original Research Articles

The influence of different breeding units and breeding systems on reproductive results of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) 

Dorota Banaszewska, Dominik Ostrowski, Barbara Biesiada-Drzazga, Katarzyna Andraszek, Krzysztof Górski, Marta Flis-Chruściel

Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of breeding units and two housing systems on the reproductive effects of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). The study was taken in an amateur breeding in the Masovian voivodeship in 2013. The material of the study was 10 pairs of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), half of which was bred in an aviary gregarious system, the rest of the birds was kept indoor in individual cages in pairs. The analysis of the breeding work is based on indicators: the number of eggs, the number of chicks reared and demises of birds in the two systems of breeding. The observed pairs of cockatiels characterized good reproductive indicators. However, the significant differences were found between the systems of rearing. All pairs had 2 clutches per year, but at the end of the breeding season the birds kept in the aviary reared a total number of 44 chicks. In comparison, the birds kept in individual cages reared only 22 chicks.

Fighting homelessness of dogs – evaluation of the strategy adapted by the city of Siedlce 

Małgorzata Bednarczyk-Szurmak, Elżbieta Bombik, Teresa Bombik, Katarzyna Łagowska, Izabela Szumigłowska, Marcin Różewicz

Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the strategy to combat homelessness of dogs in the city of Siedlce. The survey was based on questionnaires that included the following data: the number of dogs captured in 2010–2012, expenses incurred on the capture of the dogs and their boarding, procedures for dealing with homeless dogs, veterinary care, providing of full time care, the search for new owners for homeless dogs. The activities carried out by the municipality of Siedlce aimed at introducing compulsory registration and marking of dogs should be considered appropriate. Also the action of spaying/neutering dogs that get to shelters should be noted as positive. This action will significantly reduce propagation rates of dogs, and as a result reduce the number of animals brought to the shelter in future. As a result of the actions taken in Siedlce, a gradual decrease in the number of homeless dogs can be observed. Most homeless dogs have been spotted during summer holidays, which could have been caused by problems with the care of the animals; hence creation of hotels for animals seems a good solution. The shelter must be more active to increase the percentage of adoptions of dogs.

Analysis of building thermal dimensioning and housing system of White Kołuda geese in terms of assessing their welfare 

Teresa Bombik, Barbara Biesiada-Drzazga, Elżbieta Bombik, Izabela Szumigłowska, Małgorzata Bednarczyk-Szurmak, Beata Trawińska

Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyze building heat retention and the housing system of White Kołuda geese and their effects on animal welfare. The analyses were carried out on two farms located in Lubelskie province, Poland. The facilities differed in the stock size, housing system (on litter bedding, on grid), and the type of roof (sloped roof with attic or flat roof/ceiling). The analysis of thermal properties of the buildings was carried out basing on the Thermal Properties Index (TPI). The welfare was estimated observing the pattern of air temperature and humidity changes during winter. The results suggest that the welfare of the breeder geese was at a lower level. Better conditions, though still far from the welfare optimum, were observed in the goose house with litter floor bedding and with usable attic, with a lower cubature and a higher TPI values.

Changes in the body condition and daily milk yield of cows during lactation depending on the level of fat reserves before calving  

Danuta Borkowska, Ewa Januś, Robert Polski

Abstract. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the level of fat reserves accumulated in the bodies of cows before parturition on changes in their body condition and daily yield after calving. The study was carried out in five herds of Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian cows and included 242 cows in which 4.890 body condition scores were determined before calving and during 435 lactations and dry periods. In addition, 4.430 test-day milking results were analysed. Statistical calculations were performed in SAS software (GML procedure). The statistical model took into account the effect of body condition before parturition, the farm, and the lactation number and stage of lactation after calving on the rate of changes in daily milk yield in kg FPCM and on body condition score (BCS) during lactation. We found that in cows that accumulated insufficient fat reserves before parturition, daily yield did not increase at the beginning of lactation. Moreover, body condition scores did not decrease in these cows. The highest daily yield at the beginning of lactation, and subsequently the highest rate of its decline, were noted in the cows whose BCS before calving was at least 3.5. A score of 3.5 before calving was found to be the most beneficial for productivity up to the 6th month of lactation, as well as for the release of energy from fat tissue after calving and subsequent replenishment of reserves.

Effect of caponizing Yellowleg partridge (Ż-33) cockerels on body weight and meat quality 

Jolanta Calik

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of caponization on the body weight and selected meat quality parameters of Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) cockerels. Ż–33 cockerels were randomly assigned to two groups with 40 birds. Group I (control) consisted of uncastrated cockerels and birds from group II were castrated at 9 wk of age. The castration was performed under local anesthesia by a veterinary surgeon. Birds were kept until 24 wk of age and fed the same diet ad libitum. Dressing percentage, proportion of breast and leg muscles, giblets and abdominal fat were determined postmortem. Physical characteristics of meat: pH, CIE L*a*b* colour, drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force were determined and sensory evaluation was performed. It was established from the results obtained that the castration of Ż–33 cockerels had a beneficial effect by increasing their body weight, dressing percentage and carcass muscling, and by improving the technological parameters and sensory appeal of meat, thus making it possible to use surplus cockerels as valuable material for producing poultry meat of special quality.

Parasitic fauna of gastrointestinal tract of horses and evaluation of deworming effectiveness  

Doris Czapla, Beata Seremak, Barna Kruzhel, Stakh Vovk

Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of parasitic fauna of the gastrointestinal tract of horses and to assess the efficacy of ivermectin. Incidence and intensity of infection was determined based on faecal analyses using Willis–Schlaf and Mc Master methods. Anthelmintic resistance was determined using a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Preparation ivermectin (paste) was administered once to all horses individually, in a dose of 120 mg ∙ 600 kg–1 (0.2 mg ∙ kg–1). The study found an average infection incidence of horses with gastrointestinal parasites at the level of 92.86%. Incidence of infection with large strongyles (Strongylinae) prior to deworming of horses was 67.86%, while with small strongyles (Cyathostominae) it amounted to 89.29%. This treatment did not result in the removal of Cyathostominae and Strongylinae parasites in all hosts, but significantly reduced infection intensity of the studied horses. The efficacy of ivermectin on day 14 after the treatment of horses was 90.62%.

Effectiveness bacteriolysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157: H7 caused by specific bacteriophage isolated from pig slurry 

Bartłomiej Grygorcewicz, Magdalena Struk, Agata Wasak, Paweł Nawrotek

Abstract. This study was aimed to in vitro evaluation of a bacteriophage isolated from pig slurry samples as a bacteriolytic agent to elimination Shiga toxin–producing E. coli (STEC) O157: H7. Collected STEC O157: H7 strains was susceptible for bacteriophage infection. The phage infection at the multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, 5 or 8 caused a rapid cell lysis resulting in lack of growth in the cell concentration. In conclusion, the data obtained from the present study shows that bacteriophage isolated from pig slurry is a lytic bacteriophage capable to killing strains of E. coli O157: H7. Our results demonstrate that specific bacteriophages have the potential to biocontrol STEC strains in environment.

The breeding value of Wielkopolski horses belonging to particular stallion lineages in the successive volumes of the Stud Book, as evidenced by their body conformation and performance traits 

Marian Kaproń, Elżbieta Czerniak, Marek Łukaszewicz, Agata Danielewicz

Abstract. The study of the body conformation and performance traits of the 11 376 Wielkopolski horses registered in the six successive volumes of the Stud book identified 24 principal stallion lineages [subsequently divided into 4 origin groups (lineage types – "Trak./East–Pruss", (Trakehner/East–Prussian), "Han." (Hanoverian), "xx" and "o/xo"] which comprised 10 630 horses. The particular lineages were represented by highly different numbers of horses, with a tendency for some of them to gradually decline ("Trak./East–Pruss." type), stagnate ("o/xo") or distinctly progress ("xx" and "Han."). A considerable number of statistically significant differences were found in the mean values of the body conformation and performance trait indices of the analysed horses (chiefly at P < 0.01) between the lineage origin groups, which suggests a high degree of breeding influence on the development of Wielkopolski performance traits. Moreover, emphasis was laid on the evident need for maintaining the existing lineages in the Wielkopolski subpopulation covered by the gene pool protection program and creating new lines and lineages in order to improve the principal population of the breed - though, exclusively on the basis of sires that pass onto their offspring body conformation and performance trait complexes which determine a high capacity potential of the offspring to meet the requirements of different purposes, forms and methods of the contemporary use of horses.

The influence of the negative cation–anion balance in cows on the frequency of milk fever 

Bartosz Kłos, Marta Kaliciak, Katarzyna Walkowiak, Maciej Adamski

Abstract. The experiment was performed on dairy cattle herds from two farms in Opole Province. The animals were in at least 75% Holstein-Friesians. During the dry period the cows were fed negative cation–anion balanced feed. Statistically important differences in frequency of milk fever were noticed between groups of animals fed the feed with and without anionic salts.

The sexual activity and ejaculate traits of Duroc, Hampshire and Pietrain boars and their crosses 

Stanisław Kondracki, Anna Wysokińska, Maria Iwanina, Katarzyna Łącka, Natalia Łącka, Aneta Wesołowska

Abstract. The experiments were conducted on 31 boars, including: 5 Duroc, 5 Hampshire and 7 Pietrain boars, as well as 9 Duroc x Pietrain and 5 Hampshire x Pietrain hybrids. Two series of measurements were performed at three-month intervals for each individual animal. The sexual activity of the boars was assessed on the basis of measurements of the time at which the successive sexual reflexes were released when manually collecting semen. We also assessed the collected ejaculates on the basis of measurements of ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and motility, as well as the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate and the number of insemination doses prepared from a single ejaculate. The Hampshire x Pietrain hybrids turned out to have the most advantageous traits from the point of view of insemination use. These boars are characterised with the shortest times of reaction to the phantom and, with a relatively long ejaculation, they produce ejaculates with the highest numbers of spermatozoa, providing the most numerous insemination doses. Among the pure-bred boars, the most advantageous traits were found in the Pietrain boars. This breed is characterised with the longest time of ejaculation and produces ejaculates with high sperm counts. Pietrain ejaculates can be used to prepare 5 insemination doses more than Hampshire ejaculates and 10 insemination doses more than Duroc ejaculates.

Fatty acids profile and health lipid indices in the longissimus lumborum muscle of different beef cattle breeds reared under intensive production systems 

Renata Pilarczyk, Jerzy Wójcik

Abstract. The aim of this study was the comparison of the fatty acids profile and health lipid indices of the longissimus lumborum muscle from 86 bulls of the Charolais (CH), Limousin (LM), Simmental (SM), Salers (SL), Hereford (HE) and Red Angus (RA) breeds reared under intensive production systems. As compared with the meat from bulls of other investigated breeds, the meat from SM bulls contained significantly more (P ≤ 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:2n–6cis (LA), C18:3n–3 (LNA), C20:3n–6 and C22:6n–3 (DHA), a lower percentage of SFA, a higher percentage of PUFA, n–6 PUFA and UFA, as well as significantly more C20:5n–3 (EPA) and n–3 PUFA compared with CH, RA and LM bulls. The meat from CH and RA bulls was characterized by a significantly lower total content of PUFA and n–6 PUFA also in comparison with the meat from LM, HE and SL bulls, however higher content of CLA compared with the LM and SL breeds. The most advantageous PUFA/SFA, UFA/SFA and h/H ratios, as well as AI and TI were characteristic of the meat from SM bulls.

Analysis of the growth and development of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental calves held in an "igloo" type hutches 

Małgorzata Szewczuk, Karolina Turek, Piotr Sablik

Abstract. The research was conducted on Holstein-Friesian (31) and Simmental (83) calves kept in "igloo" sheds until their third month of life. In Holstein-Friesian cattle easy deliveries were most common (61.3%), whilst in Simmentals there were more difficult deliveries, which required help of more than one person (54.2%). The assessment of calves’ growth and development was based on body mass at birth, body mass in subsequent months of life and daily body mass gains in given rearing period as well and health assessment. All HF calves were born healthy and heavier (+1.5 kg) than Simmental calves (P ≤ 0.05). During the whole raising period Simmental calves had higher daily mass gains (+40 g) than HF calves. The worst season in calves raising was the summer (HF – 25.7% of sick cows) and the fall (SM – 32.4%).

The effect of different agitation modes on bacterial cellulose synthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strains 

Anna Żywicka, Dorota Peitler, Rafał Rakoczy, Maciej Konopacki, Marian Kordas, Karol Fijałkowski

Abstract. The present study focus on the research concerning the effect of various agitation modes on bacterial cellulose (BC) synthesis by different strains of Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The BC biosynthesis process was performed for 7 days at 28°C in 50 mL plastics tubes using a roller shaker or in 50 mL plastics tubes equipped with disks made of metal ferrite or polycarbonate using a shaker roller, or in 100 mL glass flasks on an orbital shaker. All the cultures were carried out in the agitated conditions with a variety of mixing speeds. After 7 days of incubation, the weight of the synthesized BC, density and pH of the culture medium were determined. It was found, that the stirring speed during the cultivation was the one of the most important parameters affecting on the biosynthesis process of bacterial cellulose. It was shown, that, depending on the stirring speed, BC formed the different size spherical forms or was produced as a mass with irregular shapes. Higher density of G. xylinus cells was found in culture agitated with higher stirring speed. It was also determined, that the highest weight of BC was obtained in culture agitated at the speed of 150 rpm on the orbital shaker.