ISSN 1644-0714 e-ISSN 2300-6145

Zootechnica

Volume 11(4), 2012

Original Research Articles

Daily activity of cows in a herd Charolais 

Mariusz Bogucki, Anna Sawa, Wojciech Neja, Adam Oler, Maciej Ziemer

Abstract. This study analysed basic forms of behaviour in Charolais cows with regard to season of the year and day. It was found that in each season, resting cows preferred lying on the left side, from 19.7% of the day in summer to 27.6% in winter. Animals rested on the right side slightly less often: 14.0% and 24.7% of the day, respectively. Cows spent most time on feed intake in summer (36.2% of the day) and least time in winter (19.7%). Standing position was most frequent in autumn (31.6% of the day) and least frequent in winter (28%). Water intake by the cows was most frequent during summer, averaging 4.8 times per day. By far the most frequently, cows rested in the lying position during the night. Animals spent from 57.8% to 78.9% of the total feeding time on lying down in summer and winter, respectively.

The effect of selected factors on changes in body condition in high-yield cows 

Danuta Borkowska, Ewa Januś, Agnieszka Wilgos

Abstract. An analysis was conducted of 644 body condition assessments made in 2011 in a herd of 52 Black-and-White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows with annual milk yield exceeding 10,000 kg. Body condition was assessed once a month according to the 5-point BCS system, accurate to within 0.25 points. Changes in body condition and the frequency of particular scores were found to be significantly influenced by lactation number (first or subsequent), the season in which calving took place, daily milk yield, milk urea level, and the period after calving. The highest average scores were noted in multiparous cows, in cows that calved in the summer, and in those with the lowest daily milk yield. The lowest scores were observed in cows with the highest milk urea level and in the period from the 5th to 7th month after calving. In addition, primiparous cows were found to begin lactation with lower fat reserves than multiparous cows, and had lower body condition scores in all periods after calving.

The comparison of yield, composition and quality of cow milk depending on twice-a-day and four-times-a-day milking 

Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska, Katarzyna Gralla, Małgorzata Szewczuk, Ewa Chociłowicz

Abstract. The aim of this study was the comparison of yield, composition and quality of cow milk depending on twice-a-day and four-times-a-day milking. The research was performed on Polish Holstein-Friesian cows of Black-and-White. It was found that milking frequency affected milk yield and composition. A higher daily milk yield was observed in winter, spring and summer for the four-times-a-day milking. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were recorded in spring and summer. Somatic cell count in milk was found to be the highest in autumn in both compared groups. The differences between groups were significant (P < 0.01). Is still necessary to have a real improvement quality of milk by following the appropriate procedures for its acquisition thereby enable the production of high-quality material.

Meat quality of quail fed with feedstuff containing Nigella sativa seeds 

Józefa Gardzielewska, Danuta Szczerbińska, Małgorzata Jakubowska, Tadeusz Karamucki, Marek Ligocki

Abstract. The research was carried out on female Pharaoh quails from the 7th to 20th weeks of life, divided into 3 nutrition groups. Group I (control) received standard feedstuff for adult birds. Group II received feedstuff with 3% supplementation of Nigella sativa seed, and group III with 5% supplementation. All the feedstuffs used in the experiment were isoprotein and isoenergetic. After the completed experiment 12 females were randomly selected from each group and slaughtered. In the isolated breast and leg muscles the following characteristics were determined: water holding capacity, drip loss, colour, basic chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory attractiveness of meat and broth. The obtained results showed no effect of the supplementation on the basic chemical composition of breast and leg meat, or the content of fatty acids. We observed a favourable effect of 5% supplementation on the colour of meat. We observed a deterioration in the tastiness of the cooked breast muscles and broth made from these muscles. Meat of quails receiving the lower 3% doses of supplementation was more tender.

Effect of flax seed in feed on the quality of quail meat 

Małgorzata Jakubowska, Józefa Gardzielewska, Danuta Szczerbińska, Tadeusz Karamucki, Zofia Tarasewicz, Marek Ligocki

Abstract. The study was conducted on female Pharaoh quails aged from 7 to 20 weeks, divided into 3 dietary groups. The control group received standard feed for adult birds, whereas group I received feed containing 4% flax seed and group II received feed containing 7% flax seed. All feedstuffs used in the experiment were isoprotein based and isoenergetic. After the feeding period, 12 females were selected from each group and slaughtered. Separated breast and leg muscles were assayed in terms of water holding capacity, thermal drip, colour, basic chemical composition, fatty acid composition and sensory appeal. Based on the survey, it was ascertained that the feeds containing 4% and 7% flax seed had no effect on the chemical composition and physical properties of the quail breast muscles, while the leg muscles had lower dry matter content, total protein and fat. Sensory evaluation showed possible deviations of taste and smell of the meat and broth from quails receiving flax seeds. The use of 7% flax seed in feed resulted in significantly less fatty acids: C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C17 : 0, C18 : 0, and more unsaturated fatty acids: C16 : 1c, C18 : 1 n-9c, C18 : 3 n-3, C20 : 3 n-6, C22 : 5 n-6.

Mink fertility of palomino colour type and its crossbreeds with different percentages of standard mink genes 

Dorota Kołodziejczyk, Stanisław Socha

Abstract. The work presents an analysis of palomino female mink fertility. There were three genetic groups within the palomino colour type: purebred mink (no standard genes), crossbreeds I (palomino with 50% standard genes) and crossbreeds II (palomino with 25% standard genes). The experimental material was obtained at two breeding farms located in northern Poland. An assessment was made of the following reproductive characteristics: number of mink at birth, number of mink reared and gestation length. Values of the aforementioned characteristics were subjected to analysis of variance and significance of differences between selected factors was checked. Female age was the factor which had a highly significant influence on the fertility of mink genetic groups. The highest number of kits per litter was recorded for two-year-old palomino females (5.91 on average) and palomino females with 50% standard genes (6.91, on average). The shortest gestation period was typical of females mated three times for all the mink genetic groups. The average gestation length in this mating system ranged between 46.08 and 48.22 days. Crossbreeding between colour types also had an influence on mink fertility. Female mink from crossbreed group I had the highest average number of kits born and reared (6.38 and 5.76, respectively).

The analysis of female fertility in new zealand white rabbit and termond white rabbit 

Dorota Kołodziejczyk, Stanisław Socha, Łukasz Pieńkowski, Leszek Gacek, Aldona Gontarz

Abstract. The objective of the work was to analyse rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) reproduction performance as related to rabbit age, month of birth and birth order. The animals were raised on a rabbit breeding farm located in south-eastern Poland. 400 females were subjected to analysis, of which 199 were New Zealand White rabbits and 201 were Termond White rabbits. Variance analysis revealed a statistically highly significant effect of breed and month of birth on the number of young born and raised. Birth order proved to be statistically insignificant. The average number of rabbits born and raised was, respectively, 7.39 and 6.46 for the New Zealand breed and 7.77 and 6.40 for the Termond breed. Coefficients of variation for both the breeds were found to be much higher for the number of rabbits raised than for the number of rabbits born. The highest percentage of litters for the New Zealand breed was associated with females which raised 7 and 8 young and for the Termond breed - 8 and 9 kittens. Rabbit reproduction results on the study farm can be perceived as good.

Influence of feeding system on mineral profile of Charolaise breed cows blood 

Robert Kupczyński, Maciej Adamski, Bartosz Kłos, Rafał Sieradzki

Abstract. The aim of the study was an assessment of macro- and microelements level in blood serum of Charolaise breed cows with a change of feeding system from organic to indoor one, when supplementary mixtures (mineral-vitamin) were introduced. Thirty two cows of Charolaise breed were selected for the experiment. The study included 2 periods taking into account final period of organic feeding system (1st period) and 6 months of indoor feeding with mineral supplements (2nd period). Blood for laboratory analysis was collected at the end of organic system feeding and after 6 months where mineral additives were used. Comparing both research periods, small decrease in Na and K content was noted in the 2nd period when compared to the beginning of the study. An increase in Fe concentration was observed in 2nd period of the study when compared to the 1st one. The differences between research period were not confirmed statistically. Also slight increase in Cl, Ca, Mg and P concentration was noted in the 2nd period of the study compared to the 1st period.

Influence of the selected hoof diseases on reproduction parameters of Polish HF cows 

Teresa Nałęcz-Tarwacka, Dorota Jędrzejek

Abstract. The aim of the paper was to show the most frequently occurring limb disorders and their effect on reproduction parameters of the cows. The studies were conducted on 220 cows with the mean yield equal to 10 500 kg of milk and showed that 16% of the herd suffered from digital dermatitis, 10% had interdigital dermatitis and 7% revealed sole ulcer (Rusterholz disease). The primiparas and the cows in the third lactation suffered most frequently from hoof lesions. The three mentioned above diseases affected significantly the decrease of milk production of the cows and deterioration of reproduction indices. Ovarian cysts occurred most frequently in the cows suffering from the Ruslerholz sole ulcer (13.33%). Endometritis was most frequently (47.06%) found in case of the cows with digital dermatitis. The cows with the hoof disorders became pregnant with greater difficulties and their inter-pregnancy period was considerably prolonged.

Morphological features of Microsomacanthus baeri Czaplinski & Vaucher 1977 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) 

Małgorzata Nowak, Katarzyna Kavetska, Katarzyna Królaczyk, Vadim V. Kornyushin

Abstract. During standard parasitological research on West Pomeranian ducks, conducted by the Laboratory of Biology and Ecology of Parasites in the years 2000-2011, 16 tapeworms were found in the intestines of five Malards (Anas platyrhynchos) and one Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula). The tapeworms were classified as Microsomacanthus baeri Czaplinski & Vaucher 1977 on the basis of the segments’ internal structure. The presence of this tapeworm in Polish fauna has been indicated beforehand, however, the reports were merely of a contributory character, thus the aim of this thesis was a morphometric characteristic of this parasite.

Comparative study of cestode and nematode fauna of the gastrointestinal tract of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L., 1758) from three different Polish ecosystems 

Małgorzata Nowak, Katarzyna Kavetska, Katarzyna Królaczyk, Agata Stapf, Sławomir Kornaś, Marek Wajdzik, Marta Basiaga

Abstract. The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most acquired and, at the same time, the most common wetland game birds in Poland, occurring on the territory of almost the whole country. The habitat of this bird is constituted by most shallow water reservoirs, rivers, lakes and ponds situated in mid-fields. The aim of this study was to compare the composition of cestode and nematode fauna of the gastrointestinal tract of Mallards acquired from three different Polish ecosystems (BzuraValley, the area of Warta Mouth National Park and reservoirs around Szczecin). The research material was constituted by tapeworms and nematodes found in gastrointestinal tracts of 211 Mallards. Fixed slides of tapeworms stained with acetocarmine were made, and nematodes were cleared in lactic acid. 30 species of parasites were determined - 23 tapeworms and 7 nematodes. Differences were indicated between helminth faunas of Mallards from the whereabouts of Borów, Słońsk and Szczecin. The most helminth species were noted in the gastrointestinal tract of Mallards acquired near Szczecin, and the least from Mallards from the whereabouts of Borów.

Fast blood plasma reductants in well-trained standardbred trotters before and after intensive race 

Ryszard Pikuła, Tadeusz Ogoński, Angelika Cieśla

Abstract. Concentrations of haematological parameters in five Standardbred mares were determined at rest and after race, as well as blood plasma dehydration factor Df, TAS and TAS x Df, and fast plasma reductans (FPR) and FPR x Df. An increase in PLT, WBC and RBC values was observed after intensive race, as well as a significant growth in HGB and HCT concentrations values. The RBC x HGB values at rest observed in this study are characteristic of good horse preparation to aerobic exercise. The observed post-exercise drop in the TAS concentration was significant, while that in the FPR concentration was insignificant. It is apparent that post-exercise horse blood parameters should be examined in association with organism dehydration degree.

Ancestry analysis of cows of record milk yields and its constituents 

Zbigniew Sobek, Jolanta Różańska-Zawieja, Anna Nienartowicz-Zdrojewska, Monika Figiel

Abstract. The aim of the research was the pedigree analysis of top yielding cows. The investigation concerned the effects of male ancestors on the productivity of their female progeny. The total of 3,187 pedigrees of Holstein-Friesian cows with lifetime milk production of over 100,000 kg were examined. The cows were descendants of 971 sires. On the basis of the pedigree analysis it had been proved, that the ancestors of top yielding cows had positive effects on the productivity of their daugters, granddaughters and great-granddaughters. It had also been noted, that there were distinguished ancestors found repeatedly in the pedigrees of sires, grandsires and great-grandsires with the greatest number of high producing female descendants. The common descend of some of the champion cows explains their high productivity. The pedigree analysis had also shown, that many of them were related to one another. Looking deeper into the pedigrees of the sires we repeatedly found outstanding, high-ranking bulls. Increasing degree of relationship among many of the analysed bulls and cows may result in further increase of inbred especially in the group of the most valuable individuals.