ISSN 1644-0714 e-ISSN 2300-6145

Zootechnica

Volume 10(4), 2011

Original Research Articles

Analysis of the possibility of various litter beddings application with special consideration of cattle manure separate 

Maciej Adamski, Katarzyna Głowacka, Robert Kupczyński, Adam Bensk

Abstract. The aim of the work was to analyse an utilisation of various litter beddings by dairy cows during rest. Cows cleanness and hygiene level in cowsheds determine yield and quality of milk, however is still an up-to-date issue. For the experiment purposes, the sites with straw, sand, sawdust and cattle manure separate (12 site with each bedding) were allocated in free-stalls cowshed. The cattle manure separate is a solid fraction of slurry formed as a result of its separation from liquid part. Such a separation allows to utilize a liquid manure as a fertilizer, while solid fraction may be applied as litter material in a closed cycle. Twelve animals were selected among the dairy cattle herd and let to the separated part of the cowshed where they had a free access to all the sites. The analyses conducted demonstrated that the cows observed preferred the separate as litter material more than other kinds of beddings. A few-months observations of mastitis frequency in cows did not confirm the threats concerning hygienic state of such a litter, and also hooves were dry that increased their hygienic status.

Evaluation of selected parameters of horse stabling environment in box-stall stables 

Elżbieta Bombik, Teresa Bombik, Aneta Frankowska

Abstract. The aim of this study was to assess the management conditions of horses at three box stables located in north eastern Mazovia. Range of studies included a zoohygienic inventory of stables and physical parameters measurements of air in the spring period. Scientific research showed that the analyzed elements of horses breeding environment in the box stables were within the recommended standards. On the basis of the stable inventory it was shown that the pits area and cubature idexes were adequate to the zoohygienic requirements. Values of most physical parameters of air (temperature, relative humidity, air movement and cooling power) ranged at the level of the minimum management conditions of horses. Only natural lighting (object B and C) and artificial lighting (objectA, B and C) were too low in relation to optimum zoohygienic standards. In the evaluated stables, received light intensity value was twice higher than the recommended requirements (in the course of study outside of analyzed buildings sunny weather prevailed).

The influence of temperature and humidity conditions on productivity and welfare of broiler chickens 

Teresa Bombik, Barbara Biesiada-Drzazga, Elżbieta Bombik, Aneta Frankowska

Abstract. The aim of the work was to determine the effect of thermal and humidity conditions on productivity and welfare of broiler chickens. Studies were conducted during the winter in two buildings (Aand B) of similar technical and technological solutions, and different area indexes. It was found that broiler houseA, with optimal density of birds (16.5 chickens per m2) had temperature and air relative humidity ranged within the limits of zoohygienic recommendations. Whereas broiler house B where birds density was too highly (18.6 chickens per m2) showed a slight deflection of these parameters from standard. Profitable management conditions of broiler chickens in the buildingA was reflected in higher body weight (2260 g), better feed conversion (1880 g · kg b.w.–1) and lower mortality of birds (3.6%).

Comparison of Limousine cattle with their crossbreds with Black-and-White breed managed under organic conditions on the Czarnocin farmin the years 2008–2009 

Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska, Ewa Chociłowicz, Tomasz Możdżyński, Małgorzata Szewczuk

Abstract. The aim of this study was to compare pure-bred Limousine cattle with their crossbreds with Black-and-White breed in regard to the selected zoometrical measurements, selected fertility indices as well as birth weight of calves and their daily body weight gains. The research was conducted on the Czarnocin organic farm located in theWest Pomerania Province. Purebred cows were characterized by a higher mean body weight, higher hip height and lower chest girth than crossbreds. Pure-bred individuals had slightly better fertility indices in comparison with their crossbred age mates. Significantly (P≤0.05) higher body weight and daily body weight gains at 210 days of age were found in bull calves compared with heifers.

Evaluation of an impact of mixtures containing brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on post-slaughter quality of broiler chickens 

Alina Janocha, Maria Osek, Zofia Turyk, Anna Milczarek

Abstract. The study assessed an influence of broiler chicken feeding mixtures characterized by a different share of brewer’s yeast on post-slaughter effects of birds and the quality of their meat. It was found that the control group chickens and the birds fed mixtures in which 11 and 18% soybean protein was replaced with yeast protein obtained better slaughter performance, better musculature, and lower carcass fatness than the birds which was receipting mixtures with more yeast. An introduction of yeast in mixtures increased the crude fat content in both breast and thigh muscles. An application of mixtures with a higher share of yeast protein unfavourably influenced the composition of fatty acids of meat lipid fraction, mainly the amount of PUFA. Mixtures including brewer’s yeast beneficially influenced the flavour attributes of red and white meat.

Productivity of cows fed with TMR system calved in different seasons 

Ewa Januś, Danuta Borkowska

Abstract. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of calving season on the milk yield and course of lactation of cows fed with Total Mixed Ration system. The study was conducted in herd of 220 cows of Polish Holstein-Friesian breed of Black andWhite variety (PHF-HO) with an average milk yield exceeding 8 000 kg. It was determined that the calving season influenced the milk yield, its chemical composition and shape of lactation curves. It was demonstrated that calving in the winter months was the least favorable, due to lower productivity in the complete lactation. Births in this season initiated lactations characterized by the lowest daily milk yield in the lactation peak as well as in the last months of lactation. The highest daily milk yield in early lactation, concomitant with the most advantageous milk composition to the 5th-6th month, was associated with autumn calving, which, however, occurred with the lowest frequency.

Semen quality assessment of Duroc x Pietrain crosses in a six degree spermiogram classification scale 

Stanisław Kondracki, JoannaWysokińska,Anna Wysokińska

Abstract. The experimental material was constituted by 200 ejaculates manually collected from 20 boars maintained at three insemination stations of the Masovian Centre forAnimal Breeding and Reproduction in Łowicz. The assessment concerned ejaculates collected from each boar at the frequency of one month. Each boar provided 10 ejaculates and each ejaculate was assessed for sperm morphology. 500 spermatozoa in each sample were analysed for their morphology. Well-formed and morphologically altered spermatozoa were counted and the modified sperms were differentiated into those with primary and secondary changes, following Blom’s classification. In order to compare sperm morphology of particular males, a spermiogram quality classification was devised using a six-degree scale that assessed the ejaculates under analysis from 0 (for ejaculates with the worst sperm morphology) up to 5 (for those with the best sperm morphology). The assessment based on classifying a number of boar spermiograms was found to make it possible to determine what proportion of the ejaculates was highly useful for insemination and how many of them were not fit for the purpose.

The common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) as an indicator of anthropogenic toxic metal pollution of environment 

Marek Ligocki, Zofia Tarasewicz, Aneta Zygmunt, Mieczysław Aniśko

Abstract. The common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a widely distributed plant, not only geographically but also in terms of diverse, often extremely polluted habitats. It is therefore potentially an ideal plant to study accumulation of anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the study was to determine the suitability of common dandelion to assess the environmental contamination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn, V. The plants were collected from sites initially identified as significantly polluted as well as habitats presumably hardly contaminated. Analyses were made using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) in argon, following decomposition of the organic matrix of samples using a mixture of 65% HNO3 and 30% H2O2 in a microwave digestion system. Elevated levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Ti were found both in the leaves and roots of dandelion collected from more polluted sites. The results show that the common dandelion can be a good bio-indicator of environmental contamination for these elements. For the other studied metals, the results were not so unequivocal. In the case of Cd, Cr, Mn, and Ni, statistically significant correlation was found in the concentrations of these elements between the dry matter of leaves and roots.

First record of species Markewitchella bonini (Megnin, 1899) Spassky et Spasskaja 1972 (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea) in carrier-pigeon Columba livia f. domestica in Poland 

Małgorzata Nowak, Katarzyna Królaczyk, Katarzyna Kavetska, Vadym V. Kornyushin, Bogumiła Pilarczyk

Abstract. This paper presents the results of a parasitological section performed on three pigeons (two young males and one adult female), Columba livia f. domestica, brought from northern Germany (Kiel) to a private farm in Szczecin in autumn 2010.After two weeks of their stay in Poland the birds died. During the parasitological section of the intestine of one young male, Markewitchella bonini (Megnin 1899) Spassky et Spasskaja 1972, determined as a tapeworm from the family Davaineidae Braun, 1900, was found for the first time in Polish and German fauna. The tapeworms were prepared as solid preparations stained with acetocarmine. Characteristic for this cestode species is an intermediate host – terrestrial molluscs. First named Davainea bonini (Megnin, 1899), as a parasite of birds of the genus Columba, M. bonini has so far been recorded in Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Russia, Iran and France, where its presence was observed in Columba palumbus, Palumbus torquatus, Gallus gallus f. dom. and in the genus Anas.

Evaluation and comparison of production indices in the conservation and foundation flocks of old-type Polish Merino sheep 

Piotr Sablik, Włodzimierz Lachowski, Małgorzata Szewczuk, Krzysztof Szarkowski, Iwona Podsiadła

Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine basic production indices in the conservation flock of old-type Polish Merino Sheep and to compare them with the production results of the whole sheep flock of this breed kept on the Boguszyn farm belonging to the Lubiana Pedigree Breeding Establishment. Reproduction performance of dams as well as growth and rearing of their offspring in the period 2007–2009 were evaluated. Single born (birth type) dams predominated (56.8–62.9%) in both flocks. The percentage of twin births was approx. 38% for the ewes in the foundation flock and over 44% for those in the conservation flock. In the age structure of sheep from both flocks in the years 2007–2009, young sheep at the age of 2 to 5 years predominated, which could have affected the reproduction results of the dams. The mean body weight of all the evaluated lambs at 2 days of age was 4.14 kg. The lambs born in 2009 were the lightest. Their body weights were 3.55 kg and 3.69 kg in the foundation and conservation flocks, respectively. Statistically significantly heavier (P≤0.01) lambs were born in the conservation flock.Also, lambs from this flock gained significantly higher body weight (21.89–22.33 kg) at 56 days of age in the years 2008–2009, compared with the range of 17.85–21.84 kg for the lambs from the foundation flock in the period 2007–2009. The daily body weight gains in both flocks ranged from 240 g to 333 g and were statistically significantly better (P≤0.01) in the conservation flock. In both flocks, the significant effect of birth type and sex of lambs on their body weight and daily body weight gains was shown.

A novel arrangement of breeding sets has a positive effect on some reproductive parameters in females of the american mink (Neovison vison) 

Beata Seremak, Małgorzata Dziadosz, Lidia Felska-Błaszczyk, Bogdan Lasota, Kamil Pławski, Anna Masłowska, Grzegorz Mieleńczuk

Abstract. The study was aimed to determine the effect the arrangement of males in breeding sets on the level of selected reproductive parameters. The experiment consisted in alteration of the standard arrangement of animals in breeding sets prepared prior to mating. The modification consisted in an arrangement of males in cages so that each male was placed in the immediate vicinity of two females. The following parameters were analyzed: fertility, prolificacy, litter size, weaning success, and the average number of mating encounters per female. It was found that the average number of matings per one male from the treatment group, in which males were placed alternately with the females, was higher compared to the control group (males in a standard set). A higher percentage of mating males was observed in the treatment group compared with the control group of males. Significant differences in favor of the treatment group were observed within the parameters such as average number of born and live born kits, the mean number of mating encounters, and the length of pregnancy. The results distinctly show the beneficial effects of the modified arrangement of a reproductive mink set, in which males alternate with females, on the overall reproductive performance.

Occurrence of Tetrameres spinosa (Maplestone, 1931) Baylis, 1939 (nematoda: tetrameridae) in wild ducks from North-Western Poland 

Agata Stapf, Katarzyna Kavetska, Katarzyna Królaczyk, Bogumiła Pilarczyk

Abstract. Nematodes from the genera Tetrameres (Creplin 1846) are cosmopolitan and polyxenic parasites of birds living inland or associated with aquatic environment. These parasites are characterized by a strong sexual dimorphism and strict topospecificity, limited to the proventriculus of the host. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the morphological and ecological characteristics of T. spinosa rarely observed in Europe (Maplestone, 1931) yet typical for wild birds from the Far East. The examined nematodes were isolated from the alimentary canals of 1005 wildAnatinae (Anseriformes:Anatidae). The parasites were measured using a micrometer eyepiece, and the analysis of the quantitative structure was performed using the following parameters: extensiveness, intensity, relative density, and dominance index. The morphological description of T. spinosa in this paper is generally consistent with known information on the species, although certain differences were observed in the anatomy of some structures near the mouth of the nematode. The nematode was found in 46 out of the 1005 examined ducks (4.6%), and representing the following species: Aythya ferina, A. fuligula, A. marila, Clangula hyemalis and Melanitta nigra. The typical hosts are ducks from the genus Aythya wintering in the southwestern Baltic.

Body-surface protease inhibitors in cage and hive Apis mellifera L. 

Aneta Strachecka, Jerzy Paleolog, Grzegorz Borsuk, Krzysztof Olszewski, Krzysztof Grzywnowicz, Magdalena Gryzińska

Abstract. The aim of the work was to determine the activity of protease inhibitors sampled from the body surface of bee workers kept in a natural hive environment and in a cage. The samples were collected for five weeks. 40 cage samples and 50 hive samples were gathered, each containing 10 bees. Hydrophilic (water-treated) and hydrophobic (Triton-rinsed) proteins were isolated from the insects. The samples containing washed-out proteins were tested as follows: the activity of aspartic and serine protease inhibitors by the Lee and Lin method; electrophoretic analysis of proteins in a polyacrylamide gel for protease inhibitor detection by means of the modified Felicioli method; and in vivo tests of antifungal and antibacterial activity using the double application method. The cage environment had a destabilizing effect on the natural protease inhibitor system causing radical variation in its activity, which was not the case with the hive environment. The samples were not found to be active in relation to M. luteus and E. coli. The cage bees were less resistant to microorganisms. The results of the in vivo microorganismal test confirmed the fact of weaker protease inhibitor activity in the washed-out body-surface samples of the cage bees that was also observed in in vitro biochemical analyses. The results of cage-based analyses of non-specific apian resistance should be treated with caution when used in reference to hive bees.

Association between two polymorphisms within intron 4 of insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 gene (IGF1R/HinfI and IGF1R/Mph1103I) and milk traits of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows 

Małgorzata Szewczuk, Piotr Wilkowiecki, Sławomir Zych, Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska, Jerzy Wójcik

Abstract. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of the two polymorphic variants located in intron 4 of the gene coding for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) in the examined herd of 184 Holstein-Friesian cows and to search for the association between these polymorphisms and the selected milk performance traits. The IGF1R gene polymorphism was identified with PCR-RFLP using the HinfI and Mph1103I restriction enzymes. For the IGF1R/HinfI polymorphism, the highest frequency was found for the BB genotype (0.49), a similar one was in the case of the AB genotype (0.45) and the lowest one was for the AA genotype (0.04). The frequency of alleles was as follows: allele A – 0.28 and allele B – 0.72. Statistical analysis showed that the analysed polymorphism significantly affected milk yield, milk protein yield (P≤0.01) and milk fat yield (P≤0.05), favouring the BB genotype. For the IGF1R/Mph1103I polymorphism, no individuals with the AA genotype were recorded.Ahigh frequency of allele B (0.94) was found. No significant effect of the IGF1R/Mph1103I polymorphic site on the yield of milk, fat and protein was shown. Statistically significant differences (P≤0.05) were observed only for the percentage content of milk fat and protein with indication on the positive effect of the BB genotype.

The influence of the intensity of the growth of gilts on the reproduction performance in first farrow 

Bogdan Szostak

Abstract. The objective of the research was to estimate the influence of the intensity of the growth of Polish Landrace gilts on the fertilization effectiveness, farrow leveling and the number of born and reared pigs in the first farrow. The division of animals into groups was made on the basis of day growth from birth to the moment of the evaluation of the fattening features in a group of gilts aged 150–210 days. Five groups of gilts were distinguished. The first group comprised gilts gaining daily from 500 to 550 grams, the second group – from 551 to 600 grams, the third group – from 601 to 650 grams, the fourth – from 651 to 700 grams, and the fifth group – from 701 to 750 grams. The group of gilts gaining daily from 501 to 550 grams was characterized by the highest percentage of fertilization (79.6%), the group of gilts with the highest rate of growth (from 651 to 700 grams) was characterized by the lowest percentage of fertilization (65.7%). The youngest to farrow were the gilts with the highest rate of growth (from 651 to 700 grams), differing significantly from the gilts from group I, gaining from 450 to 500 grams. The number of pigs at birth and in the twenty-first day of life was substantially higher in primiparous gilts with the rate of growth from 450 to 500 grams and from 501 to 550 grams, in comparison to the gilts with the highest rate of growth.

Influence of selected factors on the weight of internal organs of fatteners 

Krzysztof Tereszkiewicz, Piotr Molenda, Kazimierz Pokrywka

Abstract. no abstract